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In from the coast are the highest peaks, including active volcanoes. All these valleys are blessed with rich soils, and the more southerly were relatively easy to irrigate.
Since the invention of refrigeration, these valleys have supplied the nation with fruit and vegetables. The mountains between the valleys and the coast include major earthquake zones, such as the San Andreas Fault, which caused the quake that leveled San Francisco. Distributing limited water resources fairly, however, rather than earthquakes, seems to be the most serious environmental challenge to a majority of westerners. Largely fragile tundra, Alaska's interior is composed of mountains, broken plateaus and fairly flat valleys with a cold inland climate.
Much of coastal and island Alaska has a temperate climate because of warm ocean currents. The building of the trans-Alaska pipeline, coastal oil spills and, as recently as the presidential election campaign, the debate over plans to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANWR to oil exploration have tested the nation's will to protect Alaska's nature.
Republican Vice Presidential Candidate Sarah Palin, the governor of the state, joined her party and a large majority of Alaskan voters in supporting the opening of the ANWR during the campaign. The American Cordillera are world-famous for veins of precious metals, such as the gold of the Sierra and Yukon and the Comstock silver lode of Nevada. More recently, industrial metals such as copper and lead have been mined. Large occurrences of oil and gas are found in California and Wyoming, and the Colorado Plateau contains uranium, oil shale and soft coal.
To extract the oil and coal, say mining companies, open-pit and strip-mining are necessary. Conservationists, on the other hand, argue that this mining devastates parts of the plateau as thoroughly as it destroyed areas of the Great Plains and Appalachia.
The natural riches of Hawaii are vegetable rather than mineral. Trade winds give the islands a temperate climate. The volcanic mountains catch much rain on the windward side of the islands so that the leeward side has only moderate rainfall. Coastlines and river systems Among the most important physical features and resources of the country are its coastlines, harbors, ocean currents and network of lakes and rivers.
The shallow waters of the continental shelf off the North Atlantic coast known as the Great Banks contain many kinds of fish and attracted fishermen from Europe even before European settlers established their first colonies in the New World.
By the s the famous cod stocks there had collapsed from international over-fishing, however, and made the need to manage these maritime riches clear to the USA and Canada. The east coast has a warmer climate because of the Florida Current.
Fine harbors and estuaries made the sites of New York City, Philadelphia and Baltimore excellent locations for trade. The great eastern water systems are those that drain the Central Lowland: the Mississippi with its major tributaries and the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence system. One of the world's great inland water networks, the Mississippi system, carries freight from New Orleans north to Minneapolis and east to Pittsburgh.
Western tributaries of the Mississippi are mostly unfit for navigation, but since the s the Missouri has carried heavy barge traffic as a result of dams, locks and dredging. Because canals Album) it to the Mississippi, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence system functions as the second half of one vast network of inland waterways. The biggest group of freshwater lakes in the world, the Great Lakes carry more shipping than any other inland lake group. The fertile farmland surrounding the lakes and the iron, lumber and fossil fuels near their shores supported the rapid urbanization and industrialization of the Midwest in the s.
The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in made the lake cities international seaports by bypassing the obstacles to ocean-going freighters in the St. Lawrence with huge locks. On the west coast, limited rainfall and scant mountain run-off dry up all but three river systems, the Columbia, the Colorado and the San Joaquin-Sacramento, before they reach the sea.
They do not support shipping, but the west's largest rivers have brought prosperity by providing hydroelectric power and irrigation. The Columbia, once a wild white river, now runs down through dams and calm lakes, turning the arid plateaus of Washington state into vegetable gardens and supplying electrical power as well as drinking water to several states and Native-American cultures.
The Colorado serves the same purposes on a smaller scale. Proposals for its further development have met opposition because more dams would destroy the beauty of the Grand Canyon and other canyon lands. Conservation, recreational areas and environmental protection Although the country's population is now over million, most of these people live in relatively small areas.
Some parts of the country are not suitable for urbanization because of climate or difficult topography. Others have been set aside as recreation areas or wildlife preserves. These and other factors give the USA a great variety of national, state and local parks and open spaces.
In the USA, conservation of natural beauty and resources through national parks gained acceptance in the late s, with vocal support from President Theodore Roosevelt, among others. Yellowstone National Park, the first nature preserve created by Congress, was put under federal control in The Park Service now administers over different sites, whose combined territory exceeds 40, square milessquare kilometers of land and water.
There are national parks in all parts of the nation, but the largest and most famous are located between the Rockies and the Pacific. Government protection of the parks means controlled development. According to federal law, the government must balance the interests of developers, holiday-makers, environmentalists and Native Americans. Concerted lobbying of Congress by grass-roots groups and highly organized environmental organizations such as the Sierra Club and Album) Audubon Society soon resulted in a series of landmark federal laws.
In the same year an independent regulatory body, the Environmental Protection Agency EPAtook on the national government's responsibility for monitoring and protecting America's natural environment, and the Clean Air Act gave the EPA the duty of identifying and reducing airborne pollutants. By the end of the s the Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act and the Superfund statute, which provides emergency federal funding for eliminating the health hazards of toxic-waste sites across the nation, were in effect.
These laws have been repeatedly strengthened and extended in the decades since their enactment because of the environmental damage caused largely by sprawling urban development, new and outmoded industrial sites, and innovative commercial forms of farming and food processing. The middle latitudes are, however, known for wide variations in temperature and rainfall, and the great size of North America reinforces these differences.
In general, the more distant a place is from an ocean, the more it has temperature extremes in the summer and winter. Most climates in America are distinctly inland because, with the general eastward movement of air across the country, the Cordillera mountain system limits the moderating influence of the Pacific to a narrow strip along the west coast. Thus, San Francisco experiences only a small differential between winter and summer temperatures, but coastal cities in the Northeast have the same range of temperatures that extend from the Rockies to the east coast.
The easterly direction of weather systems across the country also means the Atlantic Ocean has only a weak moderating influence. Rainfall Rainfall from the Pacific Ocean is so confined to the coastal strip by the Cordillera that the areas between the mountains and the Great Plains are arid or semi-arid. Farther east, rainfall increases because warm, moist air moves up over the nation's middle from the Gulf of Mexico, producing rainfall.
This rain often comes in cloudbursts, hailstorms, tornadoes and blizzards, with rapid temperature changes as cold Canadian air collides with warm, humid air from the Gulf of Mexico. The seasons In winter, dry frigid Canadian air moves south, spreading cold weather to the plains and lowlands and causing storms at its southern edge. In summer, that stormy edge moves north as gulf air brings hot weather that eliminates much of the temperature difference between the north and south.
Along the Pacific, seasonal changes follow another pattern. Winter in the Pacific north-west is overcast and drizzly as a result of warm, moist air from the Alaskan coast. Southern California is a climatic refuge in winter because of its mild temperatures and long periods of sunny weather. In summer, the Pacific north-west has mild air from the Pacific, and, except in the mountains, is nearly rainless.
Farther south, summer means dry, hot air and high temperatures. Autumn in the north-east and upper mid- west is marked by mild days, frosty nights and crystal-clear skies.
Spring here brings temperate weather, but autumn and spring are also the seasons when the gulf and Canadian air masses lurch most violently together, spawning hurricanes along the gulf and Atlantic coasts in the fall and tornadoes in the Mississippi valley in the spring.
Recent developments in the study of geography emphasize how political the subject is because mapping the physical world divides it in ways that decide where people belong and how resources are managed and distributed. More than one meaningful division of the country into regions is possible, and cultural regions defined as groups of states give only approximate borders because cultural boundaries rarely coincide with political units.
Individual Native-American cultures, geographic areas and states, moreover, often show a unique mixture of traits that makes their inclusion in regional cultures inaccurate at best. Native-American cultural regions Many distinctive Native-American cultures existed when Europeans arrived in the mids.
An estimated 10 million Native Americans then lived in cultures with several hundred mutually incomprehensible languages and widely varying social structures. Any survey of cultural regions in such a diversity of groups must focus on broad similarities. See Figure 2. In the woodland eastern half of the country were areas now known as the north-eastern and south- eastern maize regions, where a variety of native cultures depended on hunting, fishing, farming and gathering.
These are called maize cultures because maize, or corn as it is called in the USA, was the most important staple of the Native-American diet. The longer growing season in the south-eastern maize region resulted in more extensive and highly developed agriculture. In the east as a whole, most housing was constructed of wood, bark and thatch. Women and children usually farmed while men hunted and fished. The Native-American cultural area in the prairies and Great Plains is known as the plains or bison region.
For thousands of years the population of this area was sparse compared with other parts of the continent. People lived along waterways and depended on river-bank farming, small-game hunting and gathering. Lacking any other means of transportation, they went on a communal buffalo bison hunt once a year on foot. Then, between andthey discovered how to use the horses that reached them from Spanish-controlled areas to the south, and plains cultures were transformed.
The population grew because the food supply increased dramatically when bison were hunted on horseback. Learning of this, some tribes, such as the Dakota, migrated from nearby woodlands to the open steppes farther west. Plains peoples exchanged their settled farming customs for the nomadic culture of year-round buffalo hunters, discarding sod lodges for the portable tipi and evolving a society dominated by a warrior hunting class.
The groups transformed by the arrival of the horse the Blackfoot, Crow, Cheyenne and Dakota are among the best-known of Native Americans, largely because of their fierce resistance to white settlement on their hunting grounds. The Native-American cultural region called the south-west once encompassed a diversity of native cultures, nomadic hunters and gatherers as well as farmers, but most of its people relied on advanced forms of irrigated agriculture. These cultures all traced ancestry through the female line, and men did the farming while women owned the fields.
The Navajo and Apache were latecomers to the region, hunters and gatherers who migrated south from the Canadian plains between James Dean - Eagles - On The Border / One Of These Nights (Cassette and and who adopted farming from the pueblo-dwelling peoples.
The Navajo later learned sheep-raising, peach-growing and silver-working from the Spanish, while some Apache groups took up aspects of nomadic plains cultures, such as the tipi and hunting buffalo on horseback, and copied cattle-raising from Spaniards and Americans.
The California-intermontane cultural area included the barren territory around the Colorado plateau and most of California. The nomadic hunters and gatherers who lived here are often considered materially the poorest of the continent's native cultures. On the other hand, their loosely organized family bands are often praised for their democratic political traditions and peaceful way of life. The plentiful nature available to the coastal cultures from northern California to southern Alaska made them a stark contrast to highland cultures of the nearby inland areas.
Among the most advanced groups of related cultures north of Mexico, the north-west peoples lived in coastal villages similar to independent city states. Well supplied with wild plants and game, the Chinook, Tsimshian, Kwakiutl, Haida and Tlingit did not need to farm.
Fishing for salmon represented their primary economic activity, but saltwater fishing and whaling were also important. They made long seagoing canoes and massive wooden lodges, decorating these household items and totem poles with symbolic carving. These peoples of plenty are well known for the potlatch, several days of feasting during which a leading family gave its guests extravagant gifts.
The north-west coastal peoples were among the few non-agricultural societies to practice slavery, which was common in Native- American farming cultures. Today both men and women among the Navajo practice the sheep-herding learned long ago from the Spanish. The Inuit arrived relatively late and wanted to distinguish themselves racially from Native Americans living farther south. The coastal peoples are skilled sea-hunters, while the inland cultures are based on hunting big game.
The Inuit of Alaska are settled villagers who build underground sod-walled houses. Fast and efficient dog sledges and kayaks made it possible for them to live in one place and supply themselves with food. Indigenous Hawaiians gathered food from the tropical forests, terraced mountain sides and irrigated their fields to grow crops.
Expert open-sea fishermen from outrigger canoes, they also built semicircular fish ponds along the seashore. The common people lived in small areas where they had limited rights to fish, water, wood, wild foods and farming. Attitudes toward the land Attitudes toward land and land-ownership in Native American cultures varied. Group possession and the communal use of land were most common.
Almost all native groups had a concept of their own territory that was theirs by long residence and whose boundaries they defended or extended as circumstances demanded.
Picturing native cultures as idealized societies in which land had only spiritual value is invariably wrong because it romanticizes and oversimplifies the realities of life in North America before European settlement. The Indians were aware of their dependence on the land, which led most native cultures to deify or revere nature.
On the other hand, some cultures exploited their environment until it became depleted. Others over-hunted until some animals became extinct. If resources became scarce, groups moved to meet their needs, and conflict with other cultures resulted.
Cultural regions in the contemporary USA Political geography Today's cultural regions result from varying mixtures of increasingly global antecedents, with Native- American elements, at their most noticeable, representing one of several continental ingredients.
The main American regions are much-used concepts for understanding subdivisions of American culture and society. Still, US regions tend to be less distinct than those in older, more demographically stable countries.
The high mobility of the American population adds to the homogenizing effects of popular mass culture, modern transportation, urbanization and the centralization of the economy and government. The north-east The north-east often seems to be one unit when viewed from other sections of the country. In fact, the north-east is arguably still the nation's economic and cultural center, and is two regions New England and the Mid-Atlantic rather than one. New England itself is often divided into two parts.
Southern New England Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island has long had a cultural importance out of proportion to its size, natural resources and population. Massachusetts received a very large number of early colonists from Britain and rapidly developed stable institutions, cohesive communities and an expanding population that strongly influenced the rest of New England and the northern half of the country during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Americans trace several aspects of the nation's traditional core culture to southern New England. The region supposedly also bequeathed the country belief in the so-called Puritan work ethic, the faith that hard work and good morals are rewarded in this world and the next. In the mid-nineteenth century, New England authors such as Ralph Waldo Emerson expressed central values that for over a hundred years James Dean - Eagles - On The Border / One Of These Nights (Cassette taught in US schools as the foundation of the entire nation's culture.
In the s New England Yankees became famous for their economic ingenuity, as traveling peddlers, clipper-ship captains and mill owners. The fall line near the coast, by providing cheap water power close to trade routes, made the region the cradle of American industry. When industry converted to steam and electricity, the region lost manufacturing jobs to parts of the country richer in the natural resources essential to modern industry.
One of New England's greatest strengths in its economic competition with other regions today is its concentration of quality institutions of higher education and research. New England is now a leader in innovative business methods, publishing and high-technology industries. The region's tourist industry flourishes because of its scenic qualities and status as a repository of the nation's history. The northern zone of the region Maine, Vermont and most of New Hampshirewith its woodland mountain areas, has developed a lucrative industry providing summer cottages and second homes for people who want to escape east-coast cities.
With a larger, more varied population, better soil and a greater share of natural resources, the mid- Atlantic region surpassed New England in trade and manufactures during the s.
During the next century, these advantages helped the mid-Atlantic region grow into the nation's commercial-industrial hub. Its harbors became the nation's premier port cities, and here too the fall line provided cheap water power. The mid-Atlantic also has passages through the Appalachian Mountains.
First roads, then canals and later railroads followed these east-west routes as they opened western New York, Pennsylvania and the Great Lakes states to settlement and carried farm products to the coastal cities of the mid-Atlantic. The Erie Canal, joining Lake Erie with New York City, made the cost of shipping a ton of freight from the lake to the city nearly twenty-four times cheaper, and thus the pattern of transportation down the inland rivers to New Orleans rapidly shifted towards New York, which became the nation's largest and wealthiest city.
Glenn Frey sings the lead vocal, with Bernie Leadon providing the main harmony vocal starting in the beginning of the second verse James Dean - Eagles - On The Border / One Of These Nights (Cassette Randy Meisner completing this three-part harmony. Jack Tempchin wrote the song during a period in which he was performing at folk coffee shops around his hometown of San Diego. Tempchin slept on the floor of the club the night of his show, and wrote an early version of "Peaceful Easy Feeling" on the back of the poster.
We'd sit in front of the picture window and watch the beautiful girls on the bus stop bench and fall in James Dean - Eagles - On The Border / One Of These Nights (Cassette with them until their bus came. We talked in those days about how love never seems to show up until you stop looking for it. But, as young guys, we were unable to stop looking for love even for one day.
During a following trip to Old Town San Diego State Historic ParkTempchin saw a girl with "turquoise earrings against her dark skin," which he incorporated into the song.
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IFPI Austria. Glenn Frey sings the lead vocal, with Bernie Leadon providing the main harmony vocal starting in the beginning of the second verse and Randy Meisner completing this three-part harmony. Jack Tempchin wrote the song during a period in which he was performing at folk coffee shops around his hometown of San Diego.
Tempchin slept on the floor of the club the night of his show, and wrote an early version of "Peaceful Easy Feeling" on the back of the poster. We'd sit in front of the picture window and watch the beautiful girls on the bus stop bench and fall in love with them until their bus came. We talked in those days about how love never seems to show up until you stop looking for it. But, as young guys, we were unable to stop looking for love even for one day.
During a following trip to Old Town San Diego State Historic ParkTempchin saw a girl with "turquoise earrings against her dark skin," which he incorporated into the song.
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