What it says is that Samuel came up, but it doesn't say where he was, and it doesn't say if he was living at the time. It looks like what - before he was raised up, it looks like he was simply dead, and he was brought back to life temporarily, and he didn't appreciate that laughterand so he was upset. And then we'll talk about the history of ideas of heaven and hell.
If you're just joining us, my guest is Bart Ehrman. So you write that starting in the sixth century, Hebrew prophets began to proclaim, you know, that the nation had been destroyed and would be restored back to life by God. It would be the resurrection of the nation.
But then toward the end of the Hebrew Bible era, some Jewish thinkers came to believe that the future resurrection would apply not just to the nation but to individuals. So how does that shift happen? So this is a really important shift for understanding both the history of later Judaism and the history of later Christianity and the historical Jesus. About before Jesus was born, there was a shift in thinking in ancient Israel that became - it became a form of ideology, a kind of religious thought that scholars today call apocalypticism.
It has to do with the apocalypse, the revelation of God. These people began to think that the reason there is suffering in the world is not what the prophets had said, that it - because people sin and God is punishing them; it's because there are forces of evil in the world that are aligned against God and his people who are creating suffering.
And so you get these demonic forces in the world that are creating misery for everyone. But they - these apocalyptic thinkers came to think that God was soon going to destroy these forces of evil and get rid of them altogether, and the world would again That Old Time Religion to a utopia.
It'd be like paradise. It'd be like the Garden of Eden once more. The people who thought that maintained that this Garden of Eden would come not only to people who happened to be alive when it arrived; it was going to come to everybody.
People who had been on the side of God throughout history would be personally raised from the dead and individually would be brought into this new era, this new kingdom that God would rule here on Earth.
When Jesus was alive, he thought the end of days would be soon. And of course, it kept not happening. GROSS: And you say that for the ancient Jews, the fact that the Messiah didn't come, that was a turning point in beliefs about what happens after death, too.
There started to be a belief that reward and punishment would be right after death, as opposed to after the Messiah comes. That became a view somewhat in Judaism, and it became a very pronounced view in Christianity. The - after Jesus. Jesus himself held to the apocalyptic view that I laid out. He taught - his main teaching is that the kingdom of God is coming. People today, when they read the phrase kingdom of God, they think he's talking about heaven, the place that your soul goes to when you die.
But Jesus isn't talking about heaven because he doesn't believe - he's a Jew - he doesn't believe in the separation of soul and body. He doesn't think the soul is going to live on in heaven. He thinks that there's going to be a resurrection of the dead at the end of time. God will destroy the forces of evil. He will raise the dead. And those who have been on God's side, especially those who follow Jesus' teachings, will enter the new kingdom here on Earth.
They'll be physical. They'll be in bodies. And they will live here on Earth, and this is where the paradise will be. And so Jesus taught that the kingdom of God, this new physical place, was coming soon, and those who did not get into the kingdom were going to be annihilated.
What ends up happening is that, over time, this expectation that the kingdom was coming soon began to be questioned because it was supposed to come soon and it didn't come soon, and it's still not coming, and when is it going to come? And people started thinking, well, you know, surely I'm going to get rewarded, you know, not in some kingdom that's going to come in a few thousand years, but I'm going to get rewarded by God right away.
And so they ended up shifting the thinking away from the idea that there'd be a kingdom here on Earth that was soon to come to thinking that the That Old Time Religion, in fact, is up with God above in heaven. And so they started thinking that it comes at death, and people started assuming then that, in fact, your soul would live on.
It's not an accident that that came into Christianity after the majority of people coming into the Christian church were raised in Greek circles rather than in Jewish circles because in Jewish circles, there is no separation of the soul and the body.
The soul didn't exist separately. But in Greek circles, going way back to Plato and before him, that was absolutely the belief. The soul was immortal and would live forever in Greek thinking.
And so these people who converted to Christianity were principally Greek thinkers, they thought there was a soul that live forever. They developed the idea, then, that the soul lived forever with God when it's rewarded. GROSS: So you were saying there really isn't an explicit description of heaven and hell in the Hebrew Bible or even in the New Testament, but that Paul is important in understanding the history of heaven and hell.
Tell us about what Paul wrote. EHRMAN: Paul is very important for understanding the history of heaven and hell, as he's important for understanding most things about early Christian thinking.
Paul was not a follower of Jesus during his lifetime, during Jesus' lifetime. He wasn't one of the disciples. He converted several years after Jesus' death. He - Paul was Jewish. He was raised Jewish.
He wasn't raised in Israel; he was from outside of Israel. He was a Greek-speaking Jew. But he was also, like Jesus, an apocalypticist who thought that at the end of the age, there would be a resurrection of the dead.
When he became convinced that Jesus was raised from the dead, he thought that the resurrection had started. And so he talked about living in the last days because he assumed that everybody else now was going to be raised to follow suit. And so Paul thought he would be alive when the end came. For Paul, Jesus was going to come back from heaven and bring in God's kingdom here on Earth, and people would be raised from the dead for glorious eternity.
Paul, in his earliest letters, affirms that view of the imminent resurrection. It's going to come very soon. And he fully expected to be alive when it happened. But then time dragged on, and a couple of decades passed, and it didn't arrive, and Paul started realizing that, in fact, he might die before it happens. And so in some of his later letters, he ponders the possibility of death, and he wonders, well, what happens to me, then?
If I'm brought into the presence of Christ at the resurrection, and, you know, there's a gap between the time I die and - what happens to me during that gap? And he started thinking that, surely, he's going to be in Christ's presence during that time. And so he came up with the idea that he would have a temporary residence up with Christ in God's realm, in heaven, until the end came. Relatives of those individuals continue to keep this unique vocal style alive to this day. A Scottish fiddler named Niel Gow note the unorthodox spelling is usually credited with developing during the s the short bow sawstroke technique that defines Appalachian fiddling.
This technique was altered during the next century, with European waltzes and polkas being most influential. African Americans, who were not only slaves but also free blacks working in timber, coal miningand other industries, influenced Appalachian music as the banjo was adopted from African Americans by white musicians such as Joel Walker Sweeney in the years leading up to the Civil War. Appalachian folk became a major influence on styles like country music and bluegrass.
It is one of the few regional styles of old-time music that, since World War II, has been learned and widely practiced in all areas of the United States and Canada as well as in Europe, Australia, and elsewhere. In some cases as in the Midwest and Northeastits popularity has eclipsed the indigenous old-time traditions of these regions.
A number of American classical composers, in particular Henry Cowell and Aaron Coplandhave composed works that merge the idioms of Appalachian folk music with the Old World—based classical tradition. Appalachian old-time music is itself made up of regional traditions. The banjo player and fiddler Bascom Lamar Lunsforda native of the North Carolina mountains, collected much traditional music during his lifetime, also founding the old-time music festival in Asheville, North Carolina.
These players, among others, learned their art primarily from family and show fewer traces of influence from commercial hillbilly recordings. The Proffitts and Hicks were heirs to a centuries-old folk tradition, and through the middle to late 20th century they performed in a style older than the stringbands often associated with old time music. Their style has been recently emulated by contemporary musician Tim Eriksen.
The Southern states particularly coastal states such as Virginia and North Carolina also have one of the oldest traditions of old-time music in the United States. States of the Deep South such as AlabamaMississippiGeorgiaand Louisiana also have their own regional old-time music traditions and repertoires, as does the Ozark Mountains region of Arkansas and Missouri.
While the music of the Louisiana Cajuns has much in common with other North American old-time traditions it is generally treated as a tradition unto itself and not referred to as a form of old-time music.
Calhoun played three-finger-style banjo and sang in the Cherokee language. The New England states, being among the first settled by Europeans, have one of the oldest traditions of old-time music. Although the Puritans the first Europeans to settle in the regionfrowned upon instrumental music, dance music flourished in both urban and rural areas beginning in the 17th century.
Primary instruments today include the fiddle, piano, and guitar, with the wooden flute sometimes also used. As with Appalachian folk, a number of classical composers have turned to New England folk music for melodic That Old Time Religion harmonic ideas, most famously Charles Ivesas well as Aaron CoplandWilliam Schumanand John Cageamong others.
Rhythmically, this style is more diverse than most southern old time, featuring schottischeshornpipesand waltzes in addition to reels. Beginning in the early 19th century, when the Midwestern states were first settled by immigrants from the eastern United States and Europe, the Midwest developed its own regional styles of old-time music. Among these, the Missouri style is of particular interest for its energetic bowing style,  while Michigan is one of the few areas in North America with a continuous hammered dulcimer tradition through the twentieth century.
The region of central and southern Illinois has its own distinct style and repertoire of old-time music as well. In the Upper Midwest, especially Minnesotaold-time music most That Old Time Religion refers to a mixture of Scandinavian styles, especially Norwegian and Swedish.
Texas developed a distinctive twin-fiddling tradition that was later popularized by Bob Wills as Western swing music. Speir for the Victor company in The Pacific Northwest has a vibrant old-time music community. Among the prominent styles of old-time music in Canada are the Scottish-derived tradition of Nova Scotia particularly Cape Breton Islandthe French Canadian music of Quebec and Acadiathe old-time music of Ontarioand the prairie fiddling traditions of the central-western provinces.
Mercer University Press. Keel, Othmar Killebrew, Ann E. Lemche, Niels Peter The Israelites in History and Tradition. Levin, Christoph Liverani, Mario Israel's History and the History of Israel.
Mafico, Temba L. In Segovia, Fernando F. Mastin, B. In Day, John ed. In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel. Mettinger, Tryggve N. Meyers, Carol MacDonald, Nathan In Gordon, R. The God of Israel. Miller, Patrick D. The Religion of Ancient Israel. Miller, James M. A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. Biblical History and Israel's Past. Neusner, Jacob A Short History of Judaism. Niehr, Herbert Noll, K.
Canaan and Israel in Antiquity: An Introduction. Petersen, Allan Rosengren Rogerson, John W. In Dunn, James D. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Schniedewind, William M.
Smith, Mark S. In Noegel, Scott; Walker, Joel eds. Penn State Press. The Origins of Yahwism. Smith, Morton The government tells their citizens that these balloons are filled with poison — although some locals would still take their chances to secure a copy. Home History Religion. Quick Facts. Essential Facts. Interesting Facts. Every year, the Holy Bible sells over million copies. Non-profit organizations give out free Bibles all over the world.
The Bible has been translated to over languages. Hebrew is the original language of the Bible. The average Bible has 1, pages. In the Old Testament, the Bible has 39 books. The New Testament has 27 That Old Time Religion. The Old Testament has the sacred scriptures of the Jewish faith. The New Testament is the fulfillment of the prophecies of the Old Testament. Written as early as BC, the Old Testament is the oldest book. The apostles and missionaries wrote the New Testament in the first century AD.
The Bible is over 3, years old. In contrast to science, the Bible says that the earth is only 6, years old. The Bible has more thanwords. Psalm is the longest chapter in the Bible. There are 1, chapters in the Bible with 31, verses. Methuselah is the oldest person in the Bible who died at the age of Table of Contents. British India was split into what are now the independent nations of India and Pakistanand Hinduism became the major religion of India. Starting in the s, many Hindus migrated to North America and Britain, spreading their faith and philosophies to the western world.
An early 18th century depiction of Devi revered by Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Hindus worship many gods and goddesses in addition to Brahman, who is believed to be the supreme God That Old Time Religion present in all things.
Followers of Hinduism can visit the Mandir any time they please. Hindus can also worship at home, and many have a special shrine dedicated to certain gods and goddesses. The giving of offerings is an important part of Hindu worship. Others believe that all the deities are a manifestation of one. The caste system is a social hierarchy in India that divides Hindus based on their karma and dharma.
Many scholars believe the system dates back more than 3, years. Many subcategories also exist within each caste.
Today, the caste system still exists in India but is loosely followed. Many of the old customs are overlooked, but some traditions, such as only marrying within a specific caste, are still embraced. A Pakistani Hindu family offers prayers and light candles as they mark Diwali, the Festival of Lights, in Lahore, History of Hinduism, BBC.
But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Hungry For Love - Johnny Kidd & The Pirates - The Johnny Kidd Memorial Album (Vinyl, LP, Album)
, Sueños de Realidad - Trailer (2) - Ave Fénix (CD, Album)
, Roy Ayers - Lets Do It (Vinyl, LP, Album)
, Junior Walker - Back Street Boogie (Vinyl)
, Funk It Up (X-tended Club Version) - T.O.F. - Funk It Up (CD)
, A Question of Honour (Tom Lord) - Sarah Brightman - MP3 (CD)
, Purple Haze - Jimi Hendrix - Experience Hendrix - The Best Of Jimi Hendrix (Cassette)
, I Feel Lucky Tonight
, Brujo (Voo Doo Spanish Version) - Sergio Mendes* - Voo Doo (Special Remixed Version) (Vinyl)
, Naz Josel - Various - Fröhliches Schlesien (Vinyl, LP)
, Boo-Tee Bounce - H.M.H. - Comin Off (Cassette)