The progress of the vehicle is dependent on a series of visual judgements made by the driver concerning the relative speed of other vehicles, and any maneuvers necessary to complete the journey.
At the same time, he or she is bombarded with other information: traffic lights, road signs, turn signals, advertising hoardings, petrol prices, shop signs, local time and temperature and so on. Yet most people consider the process so routine that they play music to keep from getting bored. Even music videos, which saturate the visual field with distractions and come with a soundtrack, now have to be embellished by textual pop-ups.
This remarkable ability to absorb and interpret visual information is the basis of industrial society and is becoming even more important in the information age. It is not a natural human attribute but a relatively new learned skill. For the medieval philosopher, St Thomas Aquinas, sight was not to be trusted to make perceptual judgements by itself: "Thus sight would prove fallible were one to attempt to judge by sight what a colored thing was or where it was" Aquinas According to one recent estimate, the retina contains million nerve cells capable of about 10 billion processing operations per second.
The hyper-stimulus of modern visual culture from the nineteenth century to the present day has been dedicated to trying to saturate the visual field, a process that continually fails as we learn to see and connect ever faster. In other words, visual culture does not depend on pictures themselves but the modern tendency to picture or visualize existence.
This visualizing makes the modern period radically different from the ancient and medieval worlds. While such visualizing has been common throughout the modern period, it has now become all but compulsory. Quesnay in effect expresses the principle of visualizing in general-it does not replace discourse but makes it more comprehensible, quicker and more effective.
Visualizing has had its most dramatic effects in medicine, where everything from the activity of the brain to the heartbeat is now transformed into a visual pattern by complex technology. Computers are not, however, inherently visual tools. The machines process data using a binary system of ones and zeros, while the software makes the results comprehensible to the human user.
Early computer languages like ASCII and Pascal were resolutely textual, involving commands that were not intuitive but had to be learned. The operating system promoted by Microsoft, better known as MS-DOS, retained these technocratic features until challenged by Apple's point-and-click interface. This system, relying on icons and drop- down menus, has become standard with Microsoft's conversion to the Windows environment. As computer memory has fallen in price and with the arrival of programs like RealPlayer and Shockwave, often available free over the Net, personal computers can play real-time video with full-color graphics.
It is important to remember that these changes were as much consumer as technology driven. There is no inherent reason that computers should use a predominantly visual interface, except that people now prefer it this way. Visual culture is new precisely because of its focus on the visual as a place where meanings are created and contested. Western culture has consistently privileged the spoken word as the highest form of intellectual practice and seen visual representations as second-rate illustrations of ideas.
The emergence of visual culture develops what W. Mitchell has called "picture theory," the sense that some aspects of Western philosophy and science have come to adopt a pictorial, rather than textual, view of the world. If this is so, it marks a significant challenge to the notion of the world as a written text that dominated so much intellectual discussion in the wake of linguistics- based movements such as structuralism and poststructuralism. In Mitchell's view, picture theory stems from "the realization that spectatorship the look, the gaze, the glance, the practices of observation, surveillance, and visual pleasure may be as deep a problem as various forms of reading decipherment, decoding, interpretation, etc and that 'visual experience' or 'visual literacy' might not be fully explicable in the model of textuality" Mitchell While those already working on visual media might find such remarks rather patronizing, they are a measure of the extent to which even literary studies have been forced to conclude that the world-as-a-text has been replaced by the world-as-a-picture.
Such world-pictures cannot be purely visual, but by the same token, the visual disrupts and challenges any attempt to define culture in purely linguistic terms. One of the principal tasks of visual culture is to understand how these complex pictures come together.
They are not created from one medium or in one place, as the over precise divisions of academia would have it. Visual culture directs our attention away from structured, formal viewing settings like the cinema and art gallery to the centrality of visual experience in everyday life. At present, different notions of viewing and spectatorship are current both within and between all the various visual subdisciplines.
It does of course make sense to differentiate. Our attitudes vary according to whether we are going to see a movie, watch television, or attend an art exhibition. However, most of our visual experience takes place aside from these formally structured moments of looking. A painting may be noticed on a book jacket or in an advert, while television is consumed as a part of domestic life rather than as the sole activity of the viewer, and films are as likely to be seen on video, in an aeroplane or on cable as in a traditional cinema.
Just as cultural studies has sought to understand the ways in which people create meaning from the consumption of mass culture, so does visual culture prioritize the everyday experience of the visual, from the snapshot to the VCR and even the blockbuster art exhibition.
If cultural studies is to have a future as an intellectual strategy, it will have to take the visual turn that everyday life has already gone through. The first move towards visual culture studies is a recognition that the visual image is not stable but changes its relationship to exterior reality at particular moments of modernity. As one mode of representing reality loses ground another takes its place without the first disappearing. This dialectical image has in turn been challenged by the paradoxical or virtual image in the last twenty years Virilio The traditional image obeyed its own rules that were independent of exterior reality.
No one actually does this but the image is internally coherent and thus credible. As perspective's claim to be reality lost ground, film and photography created a new, direct relationship to reality such that we accept the "actuality" of what we see in the image. A photograph necessarily shows us something that was at a certain point actually before the camera's lens. This image is dialectical because it sets up a relationship between the viewer in the present and the past moment of space or time that it represents.
However, it was not dialectical in the Hegelian sense of the term-which would be to say that the thesis of the formal image was first countered by the antithesis of photography and then resolved into a synthesis.
Perspective images sought to make the world comprehensible to the powerful figure who stood at the single point from which it was drawn. Photographs offered a far more democratic visual map of the world.
Now the filmed or photographic image no longer indexes reality because everyone knows they can be undetectably manipulated by computers. As the example of the "smart" bombs shows, the paradoxical virtual image "emerges when the real-time image dominates the thing represented, real time subsequently prevailing over real space, virtuality dominating actuality and turning the concept of reality on its head" Virilio These virtualities of the postmodern image seem to constantly elude our grasp, creating a crisis of the visual that is more than simply a local problem.
On the contrary, postmodernism marks the era in which visual images and the visualizing of things that are not necessarily visual has accelerated so dramatically that the global circulation of images has become an end in itself, taking place at high speed across the Internet. The notion of the world-picture is no longer adequate to analyze this changed and changing situation. The extraordinary proliferation of images cannot cohere into one single picture for the contemplation of the intellectual.
Visual culture in this sense is the crisis of information and visual overload in everyday life. It seeks to find ways to work within this new virtual reality. To adapt Michel de Certeau's description of everyday life, visual culture is a tactic, for "the place of the tactic belongs to the other" de Certeau xix.
A tactic is carried out in full view of the enemy, the society of control in which we live de Certeau Although some may find the military overtones of tactics offputting, it can also be argued that in the ongoing culture wars, tactics are necessary to avoid defeat. Just as earlier inquiries into everyday life sought to prioritize the ways in which consumers created different meanings for themselves from mass culture, so will visual culture explore the ambivalences, interstices and places of resistance in postmodern everyday life from the consumer's point of view.
Visual power, visual pleasure Most theorists of the postmodern agree that one of its distinctive features is the dominance of the image. With the rise of virtual reality and the Internet in the West, combined with the global popularity of television, videotape and film, this trend seems set to continue. The peculiar dimension to such theory is, however, that it automatically assumes that a culture dominated by the visual must be second-rate.
This almost reflex action seems to betray a wider doubt about popular culture itself. Such criticism has a long history, for there has always been a hostility to visual culture in Western thought, originating in the philosophy of Plato. Plato believed that the objects encountered in everyday life, including people, are simply bad copies of the perfect ideal of those objects. He compared this reproduction as being like the shadows cast by a fire on a cave wall-you can see who or what cast the shadow but the image is inevitably distorted from the original's appearance.
In other words, everything we see in the "real" world is already a copy. For an artist to make a representation of what is seen would be to make a copy of a copy, increasing the chance of distortion. Furthermore, the ideal state Plato imagined required tough, disciplined individuals, but the arts appeal to our emotions and desires. So there was no place for the visual arts in his Republic: "Painting and imitation are far from the truth when they produce their works;…moreover, imitation keeps company with the worst part in us that is far from prudence and is not comrade or friend for any healthy or true purpose" Plato This hostility to the image has had a lasting influence on Western thought to the present day.
Some images have been deemed too dangerous to exist, leading iconoclasts to seek their destruction or removal from public view. In such campaigns, distinctions between high art and popular culture have carried little weight with the incensed righteous. The contemporary hostility to the visual in some contemporary criticism thus has deep roots. All such criticism shares an assumption All Will Fall Down - Social Deformity - Daltonism (CD) a visually-dominated culture must be impoverished or even schizophrenic.
Although television, for example, has won a place in the academic establishment, there is still a strong suspicion of visual pleasure in intellectual circles. Television is often described, in David Morley's phrase, as "radio with pictures," as if the pictures were mere decoration.
This concentration on the textual dimension to television may be appropriate for news and other "talking head" formats but has nothing to say about television's distinctive formats such as soap opera, game shows, nature programs, and sports coverage.
It is noticeable that a remote control always comes with a "mute" button but never a device to eliminate the picture. Programs can easily be followed with the sound off, a common domestic device to enable television to be part of the household activity, rather than its center. We watch television, not listen to it. This simple fact causes many intellectuals to lose patience. Intellectuals like sociologist Pierre Bourdieu have joined forces with campaigning groups like Britain's White Dot and an array of university professors to lament that television has dumbed down Western society.
Particular outrage is poured on universities for turning away from the study of what have become known as the Great Books towards television and other visual media.
Such criticism is seemingly unaware of the hostile response towards novels themselves in the Enlightenrnent that accused literary forms of the same corrupting influence on morals and intellect with which television is now reproached.
Even Michel de Certeau spoke of "a cancerous growth of vision" de Certeau xxi. Fredric Jameson gives vent to his hostility at greater length: The visual is essentially pornographic, which is to say it has its end in rapt, mindless fascination; thinking about its attributes becomes an adjunct to that, if it is unwilling to betray its object; while the most austere films necessarily draw their energy from the attempt to repress their own excess rather than from the more thankless effort to discipline the viewer.
Pornographic films are thus only the potentiation of films in general, which ask us to stare at the world as though it were a naked body…. The mysterious thing reading [becomes] some superstitious and adult power, which the lowlier arts imagine uncomprehendingly, as animals might dream of the strangeness of human thinking. Jameson The oddity of this position is that it renders America's leading Marxist critic a diehard defender of the bourgeois subject, as classically expressed through the novel.
Such narrative archetypes as the coming-of-age story, the Bildungsroman, and the twentieth-century staple of the novel about writing a novel, all express the centrality of literature to the formation of the bourgeois, individual subject.
Viewing visual images is, by contrast, very often a collective experience, as it is in a cinema. Computer technology now allows a visitor to a website to be present at the same time as perhaps hundreds or thousands of others and, in the case of chat rooms or bulletin boards, to interact with them.
Further, the inherent multiplicity of possible viewpoints available to interpret any visual image make it a potentially far more democratic medium than the written text. In Jameson's view, those who have the temerity to enjoy visual pleasure, rather than the discipline of reading, are pornographers at best, most All Will Fall Down - Social Deformity - Daltonism (CD) animals.
The All Will Fall Down - Social Deformity - Daltonism (CD) of the visual marks it as a debased activity for Jameson, whereas reading is somehow divorced from the physical processes of perception. His position is derived from the film theory of Christian Metz and other film theorists of the s, who saw the cinema as an apparatus for the dissemination of ideology, in which the spectator was reduced to a wholly passive consumer.
However, Jameson goes beyond such intellectual theorizing by presenting cinema audiences as lowlier beings, more comparable to animals than serious intellectuals like himself. The no doubt unintentional echoes of racist thought in this depiction are distasteful but necessarily implied by his colonial need to master the visual by writing.
In the eighteenth century, this hostility was directed at theater. It is now focused on film, television and increasingly the Internet. In each case, the source of hostility is the mass, popular audience, not the medium in itself. From this perspective, the medium is not the message. On the other hand, cultural studies-which seeks to privilege popular culture-has an awkward gap around the visual, leading to the bizarre situation that any viewer of Star Trek can be defined as "oppositional", while any viewer of art is the dupe of the "dominant classes.
In a methodological short cut, "art" has become the oppressive Other for cultural studies that allows popular culture to define itself as popular.
The empirical basis for this casual division of culture into two is often derived from Pierre Bourdieu's sociological study of the uses of culture, undertaken in and By analyzing the responses of a 1, person sample, Bourdieu argued that social class determined how an individual might respond to cultural production.
Rather than taste being a highly individual attribute, Bourdieu saw it as a by-product of education and access, generating a "cultural capital" that reinforced and enhanced the economic distinctions of class. Art was one of the clearest divisions in Bourdieu's survey.
Museum-going was almost exclusively the province of the middle and upper classes in the European sense of these class distinctions while the working classes were almost unanimous in disdaining both the value of art in general and modern art in particular. Yet the questions posed to the respondents seemed to seek such answers, making it easier to give generally negative responses to art. People were asked to choose between five statements, three of which provided generally negative responses to art 2 and two specific cases of approval.
Furthermore, it is reasonable to question whether a survey based on the stuffy and traditional French museums of the s should continue to determine our attitude to the far more outgoing and approachable museum culture of the s. Bourdieu's research was carried out before the advent of the "blockbuster" museum exhibition and before the shift in grant and donor attention to diversifying museum audiences. While it cannot be denied that there is still a long way to go, the situation is not as clear cut as it might have seemed thirty years ago.
When a million people visit a Monet exhibition in Chicago and five million visit New York's Metropolitan Museum annually, art and museums are in some sense a part of mass culture, not its opposite. Nor does Bourdieu's account carry historical weight.
The annual Parisian exhibition of painting and sculpture known as the Salon attracted audiences of one million spectators in the mid-nineteenth century and was as popular an event as can be imagined.
If we extend the definitions of art beyond the formal realm of the art gallery and museum to include such practices as carnival, quilting, photography and computer-generated media, it quickly becomes obvious that the neat division between "progressive popular culture" and "repressive high art" does not hold.
The role played by culture of all varieties is too complex and too important to be reduced to such slogans. This intellectual history creates a difficult legacy for visual culture studies.
Visual culture seeks to blend the historical perspective of art history and film studies with the case-specific, intellectually engaged approach characteristic of cultural studies. As this very integration is precisely what many scholars in these fields have sought to prevent by defining their fields as opposites, visual culture has to proceed by defining both the genealogy of the visual that it seeks to use and its interpretation of the loaded term "culture.
In so doing, I shall seek to create what Michel Foucault termed a genealogy of visual culture, marking out a broad trajectory for the emergence of contemporary visuality, without pretending to exhaust the richness of the field.
That is to say, the task at hand is not a futile quest for the "origins" of modern visuality in past time but a strategic reinterpretation of the history of modern visual media understood collectively, rather than fragmented into disciplinary units such as film, television, art and video. In place of the traditional goal of encyclopedic knowledge, visual culture has to accept its provisional and changing status, given the constantly shifting array of contemporary visual media and their uses.
The constituent parts of visual culture are, then, not defined by medium so much as by the interaction between viewer and viewed, which may be termed the visual event. When I engage with visual apparatuses, media and technology, I experience a visual event.
By visual event, I mean an interaction of the visual sign, the technology that enables and sustains that sign, and the viewer. In calling attention to this multiple interaction, I am seeking to advance interpretive strategies beyond the now familiar use of semiotic terminology.
Semiotics-or the science of signs-is a system devised by linguists to analyze the spoken and written word. It divides the sign into two halves, the signifier-that which is seen-and the signified-that which is meant. This binary system seemed to offer great potential for explaining wider cultural phenomena.
Semiotics gained its strength from its denial of any necessary or causal relationship between the two halves of the sign. A drawing of a tree is taken to signify a tree not because it really is in some way tree-like but because the viewing audience accepts it as representing a tree. It is thus possible for modes of representation to change over time or to be challenged by other means of representation.
In short, seeing is not believing but interpreting. Visual images succeed or fail according to the extent that we can interpret them successfully. The idea that culture is understood by means of signs has been a part of European philosophy since the seventeenth century.
It has achieved such attention in the last thirty years because linguists and anthropologists attempted to use the structure of the sign as a means of interpreting the structures of society. Many critics, however, wanted to do much more with the sign. In the first enthusiasm for semiotics, theorists came to believe that all interpretation was a derivative of reading, perhaps because as academics they were so acculturated to reading in their everyday life.
As a result, books abounded seeking to describe visual culture as "texts" or to "read" films and other visual media. In this view, any use of a sign is an instance of the total language system. A sign is thus an individual act of speech which stems from the total language system that makes such speech possible. The structuralists, as they came to be known, sought to examine the ways in which people used individual signs in order to understand the "deep structures" of society that generated these individual instances.
However, to all intents and purposes, what we have to work with is the individual instance not the total system. Nor can any sign system ever be regarded as closed-new meanings and ways of creating meaning are constantly available to any language user. If the total system cannot be known, then it is of little use to insist that the concrete example is a manifestation of that system. Thus the sign becomes highly contingent and can only be understood in its historical context.
There is not and cannot be a "pure" sign theory that will successfully cross the borders of time and place. Structuralism was in the end unproductive. It may be possible to reduce all texts to a series of formulae but in so doing the crucial differences between and within texts were elided. Visual culture, like any other means of sign analysis, must engage with historical research.
In the visual field, the constructed nature of the image was central to the radical technique of montage in film and photography in the s and s. Montage was the artificial juncture of two points of view to create a new whole, through the use of cross-cutting in film and the blending of two or more images into a new whole in photography.
In the early Soviet Union, film-maker Sergei Eisenstein saw montage as a means of conveying the radical experience of the Bolshevik Revolution. Perhaps his most celebrated film chronicled the mutiny onboard the Battleship Potemkin during the unsuccessful uprising that foreshadowed the events of A particularly dramatic montage combined shots of Tzarist soldiers mowing down the rebels and a close-up of the despairing reaction of a mother who has herself been shot, causing her to let her baby carriage fall down a flight of steps.
German photographers John Heartfield and Hannah Hoch took the technique of montage into the single frame by combining elements from different photographs into one new image. Heartfield continued to use montage politically, blending quotations from Nazi party leaders with satirical illustrations of what they might actually mean. The result is that Hitler appears to be taking the cash and thus unwittingly illustrates the left- wing contention that the Nazi party was the tool of major capitalist enterprise, rather than the representative of the German people it claimed to be.
Whether in film or photography, montage was created in the editing suite or dark room rather than on location. The artificiality of the technique asked spectators to question what it was that they were being shown and to extend that scepticism to more "realistic" images. Cross-cutting and the cutaway shot have become Hollywood and soap opera staples, while montage could be used to create effects that were simply absurd or even to serve the political right-wing.
In the s, montage is a visual experience of everyday life in a world with fifty "basic" cable television stations in the United States. It is no longer even surprising to call attention to the constructed nature of the sign when Fred Astaire can be seen using a Dirt Devil vacuum cleaner, the image of the late John Wayne sells beer and every MTV video is saturated with montage. Although literary criticism has moved on from structuralism, it continues to play a surprisingly important role in visual criticism.
Mieke Bal, one of the more sophisticated semioticians at work in art history, has recently called this practice "reading art. Yet in discussing specific works, this approach fails to convince. For in concentrating solely on linguistic meaning, such readings deny the very element that makes visual imagery of all kinds distinct from texts, that is to say, its sensual immediacy.
This is not at all the same thing as simplicity, but there is an undeniable impact on first sight that a written text cannot replicate. It is that edge, that buzz that separates the remarkable from the humdrum. It is this surplus of experience that moves the different components of the visual sign or semiotic circuit into a relation with each other. Such moments of intense and surprising visual power evoke, in David Freedberg's phrase, "admiration, awe, terror and desire" Freedberg This dimension to visual culture is at the heart of all visual events.
Let us give this feeling a name: the sublime. The sublime is the pleasurable experience in representation of that which would be painful or terrifying in reality, leading to a realization of the limits of the human and of the powers of nature.
The sublime was first theorized in antiquity by Longinus who famously described how "our soul is uplifted by the true sublime; it takes a proud flight and is filled with joy and vaunting, as though it has itself produced what it had heard" Bukatman The classical statue known as Laocoon is typical of the sublime work of art.
It shows the Trojan warrior and his children fighting a serpent that will soon kill them. Their futile struggle has evoked the sublime for generations of viewers. The sublime was given renewed importance by Enlightenment philosopher Immanuel Kant who called it "a satisfaction mixed with horror. He sees it as "a combination of pleasure and pain: pleasure in reason exceeding all presentation, pain in the imagination or sensibility proving inadequate to the concept" Lyotard The task of the sublime is then to "present the unpresentable," an appropriate role for the relentless visualizing of the postmodern era.
Furthermore, because the sublime is generated by an attempt to present ideas that have no correlative in the natural world-for example, peace, equality, freedom-"the experience of the sublime feeling demands a sensitivity to Ideas that is not natural but acquired through culture" Lyotard Unlike the beautiful, which can be experienced in nature or culture, the sublime is the creature of culture and is therefore central to visual culture.
Of course, the representation of natural subjects can be sublime, as in the classic example of a shipwreck or storm at sea. However, the direct experience of a shipwreck cannot be sublime because one would presumably experience only pain and the sublime dimension of pleasure would be missing. However, there is no question of a blanket endorsement of Lyotard's reworking of Kant.
On the one hand, Kant dismissed all African art and religion as "trifling;" as far removed from the sublime as he could imagine. Any student who has taken an introductory art history class will recognize this pattern, which privileges the rise of abstraction as the pre-eminent story of modern art. Yet by now, and even when Lyotard was writing init is clear that abstraction has ceased to be useful in destroying the contemporary sense of reality.
Indeed, it has become a trivial part of that reality, signified most notably by the predilection of corporate buyers and sponsors for abstract art. When the great works of abstraction sit comfortably in the corporate boardroom, can it really continue to be a means to challenge what Lyotard rightly calls the "victory of capitalist technoscience"?
When Philip Morris, the multinational tobacco company, enjoys sponsoring modern art retrospectives, like those of Picasso and Robert Rauschenberg in New York, under the slogan "The Spirit of Innovation"- suggesting of course that the true innovator defies convention and smokes-then the history of modernism has come to be repeated as farce.
The post modern destruction of reality is accomplished in everyday life, not in the studios of the avant-garde. Just as the Situationists collected examples of the bizarre happenings that pass as normality from the newspapers, so can we now see the collapse of reality in everyday life from the mass visual media. In the early s, postmodern photographers like Sherrie Levine and Richard Prince sought to question the authenticity of photography by appropriating photographs taken by other people.
This dismissal of photography's claim to represent the truth is now a staple of popular culture. The cover story on the Weekly World News for February 25, was a follow-up to their "story" of the discovery of the skeletons of Adam and Eve in Denver, Colorado. Further analysis of the photograph now showed the skeleton of a baby girl, disclosing that the first couple had a hitherto unknown daughter. The Weekly World News parody offers an amusing counterpart to such beliefs in the power of photography to reveal hidden truths.
At the same time, it contributes to a climate of suspicion in which O. Simpson's lawyer can plausibly dismiss a photograph showing his client wearing the rare Bruno Magli shoes worn by the killer as fakes, only to be outdone when thirty more pictures were discovered. One photograph alone no longer shows the truth. In fact some of the most avidly followed television series take reality apart in order to convey to their viewers a convincing sense of the experience of everyday life.
Soap operas set aside the conventions of realistic drama in terms of style, content and narrative. The key element that distinguishes soap from other television drama is its open, serial form. A soap should ideally run for years on end in numerous episodes, like the daytime classic All My Children which has featured five times a week All Will Fall Down - Social Deformity - Daltonism (CD) ABC for over twenty years.
Viewers have watched key characters like Erica Kane grow from teenager to middle-age through extraordinary adventures. In this unusually long time-frame, the return of a long-lost twin brother is scarcely cause for comment and the apparent death of a character is not to be taken as any indication that he or she will not later return.
Characters in All My Children routinely hold conversations in which both parties are standing facing the camera. Such devices are essential because soap is essentially structured around talk, especially the spread of information as gossip or rumor and the extensive working out of the problems caused by such talk.
Far from feeling patronized by the artificiality of soap opera, its viewers regard acquiring an understanding of the visual and textual conventions of a particular show as part of the pleasure of watching. Further commentary and information are now available on official and unofficial websites.
Just as it may take years for an uninitiated viewer to understand baseball or cricket broadcasts, a true soap opera viewer is formed in years, not weeks. As Robert C. Allen puts it, "Denied the omnipotent reading position to be found in more closed narrative forms, soap opera viewers are asked to relate to the diegetic families of their serials as they are expected to do to their own. They must exercise patience and tolerance in the face of unending tribulation, wresting pleasure from consolation and sympathy rather than from any expectation of final resolution" Allen In this sense, the experience of soap opera is in fact more realistic than the average "serious" drama which neatly wraps up all its loose ends in an hour.
Researchers who have turned their attention to soap have found that the complex narrative structure of the serials allow viewers a similarly complex viewing experience. Louise Spence argues that soap opera's slow unfolding means that it is experienced in the present, rather than the traditional past tense of the novel or play. Associated Words: scarp, escarp, parapet, graffage, counterscarp.
Antonyms: shirk, evade. Antonyms: See indocile. Associated Words: canine, Caniscyniatrics, rabies, hydrophobia, cynanthropy, cynegetics, cynic, cynophobia, cynoid, cynopodous, cynocephalous, cynocephalus, cynocephalic, learn, leash, dog-fancier. Antonyms: meek, apologetic, retiring. Associated words: lintel, jamb, sill, threshold, stile, panel, rail, mullion, porte-cochere, reveal, rabbet, casing.
Antonyms: believe, trust, rely upon. Antonyms: conviction, credulity, confidence, decision, assurance, belief, certainty. Antonyms: certain, implicit, sure, unquestionable, unwavering. Antonyms: See neat. Associated Word: conscript one drafted. Antonyms: repel, repulse, rebuff, reject, alienate. Antonyms: fact, actuality, reality, substance, realization. Associated Words: Morpheus, Morphean, oneiroscopy, oneiroscopist, oneirocritic, oneiromancy, oneirology, oneirocriticism, nightmare.
Antonyms: See undress. Antonyms: undress, disrobe, divest, strip, expose. Antonyms: temperance nephalism, abstinence, teetotalism. Associated Words: bibacious, bibulous, bibitory, dipsomania, alcoholism thirst, nectar, hobnob, bacchanalian, inebriant, potatory, oenomania, symposium, crapulence, supernaculum convivial, conviviality, tankard, beaker, cup, stein, canteen.
Associated Words: pharmacology, pharmacologist, pharmacy, pharmacognosis, pharmaceutics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacopoeoea, pharmacography, spatula, mortar, pestle, cribration, pharmacopolist, pharmaceutical. Associated Words: reveille, rappel, chamade, ruff, tattoo, ruffle, roll, rataplan, drummer, drumhead, drumstick.
Antonyms: sober, unintoxicated. Antonyms: abstainer, ascetic, nephalist, teetotaler. Antonyms: sobriety, temperance, abstinence. Associated Words: desiccator, exsiccator, desiccative, evaporator, kiln. Anatidae, Anseres. Associated words: anatine, anserine, anatiferous, quack. Associated Words: coprophagy, coprophagous, Augean, dungmeer, excrementitious, sterconst, sterconcolous, stercoraceous, bubulin.
See copy. Antonyms: original, archetype prototype, model, pattern. Associated words: pulverizable, pulverable, pulverulence, pulverize, pulverization. Associated Words: ethics, deontology, casuistry, ethology, morals, ethicist, ethically, supererogate, supererogation. Eager, a. Antonyms: indifferent, apathetic, dispassionate, phlegmatic, unconcerned unmoved, stolid. Aquila, bird of Jove; eaglet young eagle. Associated words: aquiline, eyry, aerie.
Associated Words: otology, otologist, aurist ear doctorauricular, otography, otopathy, aural, auditory, otiatrics, lappet, otoplasty, tympanitis, otorrhea, auricled, alveary, otolith, lobe, otic, binaural, malleus, stapes, incus. Antonym: jest. Associated Words: seismology, seismic, seismography, seismometry, seismal, seismometer, seismograph, seismogram, seismoscope, microseism, microseismic, meizoseismal, coscismal, anaseismic, isoseismic. Antonyms: constraint, difficulty, discomfort, uneasiness, awkwardness.
Associated Words: orientate, orientation, Orient, Orientalism, Orientalist, orientalize, orientality. Antonyms: abstain, fast, diet, starve, famish. Associated words: aristology, gastronomy, gastronome, gastronomer, epicure, epicurism, diet, dietetics, dietary, commensal, dietarian, gastronomic, gourmet, gormand, cormorant, glutton, omnivorous, appetite, hunger, hungry, gustatory, pantophagist, pantophagous, pantophagy.
Antonym: ineffectual. Antonym: inefficacious. Antonyms: inefficacy, impotency. Associated Words: ooelogy, ooelogist, ovology, oviferous, yolk, glair, albumen, embryo, oviparous, oviposit, oviposition, vitellus, fecundate, impregnate, impregnation, fecundity, clutch, vitelline, oviduct, Ovipara, ovulation, ovulist, tread, treadle, chalaza, addle, ooemeter, ooescope, spawn.
Associated Words: octonary, octopede, octant, octave, octavo, octet, octic, octad, octameter. Antonyms: inelasticity, irresilience. Associated Words: howdah, pachyderm, kraal, corral, keddah, ankus, mahout.
Antonyms: disenchantment, disillusionment. Antonyms: succumb, falter, yield, surrender. Associated Words: hostile, hostility, feud, enmity, inimical, antagonism. England, n. Albion Ancient name. Antonyms: deficiency, inadequacy, surplus. Antonyms: indifference, wariness, caution, calmness, lukewarmness. Antonyms: inferior, subordinate. Antonyms: See inequality. Antonyms: horizontal, recumbent, prone, inverted, oblique, cringing.
Antonyms: impeccable, infallible, inerrable. Associated Words: fallibility, infallibility, fallible, errant, errancy, inerrancy, inerrability. Antonyms: nonessential, superfluous. Antonyms: disesteem, aversion, odium, antipathy, unpopularity.
Antonyms: inestimable, incalculable, incomputable. Associated words: volatile, volatility, volatilize, evaporable. Associated Words: vespertine, vespertinal, erepuscular, erepusculous, soiree, vesper. Associated Words: exemplify, exemplification, exemplary, praxis. Antonyms: unexcitable, imperturbable, calm.
Antonyms: calm, serene, tranquil, nonchalant. Antonyms: imperturbation, calmness, serenity, non-chalance. Associated words: scatology, eccrinology, faecal, excrementitious, void, defecate, defecation. Associated Words: empiric, empirical, empiricism, empiristic, tentation.
Antonyms: tyro, bungler. Antonyms: See unexplainable. Associated Words: exegetics, exegesis, hermeneutics.
Antonyms: conceal, suppress, dissemble, hide, veil. Antonyms: vague, tacit, ambiguous, implied, equivocal, indefinite. Antonyms: inextensible, rigid, inelastic. Associated Words: tensility, tensibility, tensile. Antonyms: economy, thrift, frugality. Antonyms: See thrifty. Associated Words: optics, optician, ocular, oculary, oculate, oculifonn, ophthalmology, ophthalmologist, ophthalmic, optometry, ophthalmostat, optometrist, chatoyant, chatoyment, cynosure, orbit, strabismus, rheum, ophthalmoscope, ophthalmoscopy, astigmatism, optography, blear, blear-eyed, bleary, ophthalmometer, orbital, orbitary, amaurosis, ocellated.
Associated Words: palpebral, palpebrate. Associated Words: facial, domino, complexion, multifaced, rouge, cosmetic, grimace, Janus-faced, lineament, profile, silhouette, maskoid, smirk, physiognomist. Antonyms: doubt, incredulity, misgiving, unbelief. Associated Words: Fides, fiduciary, fiducial, bona fide, pistiology.
See unfaithful. See unfaithfulness. Associated words: pseudonymous, pseudonymity, pseudepigraphous pseudepigraphy. Antonyms: obscurity, ingloriousness, oblivion, ignominy, disrepute. Antonyms: unfamiliar, shy, ceremonious, distant.
Antonyms: unfamiliarity, strangeness. Associated words: genealogist, foris-familiatepedigree, nepotism, nepotic, cadency, gens. Antonyms: obscure, inglorious, unknown, notorious. Antonyms: disillusionize, decharm, repel. Antonyms: careless, indiscriminate, slovenly. Associated Words: affiliate, affiliation, filiation, patricide, patricidal, paternalism, parricide, agnate, agnation, patrimony. Antonyms: merit, perfection, beauty, impeccability. Antonyms: disfavor, opposition. Antonyms: unfavorable, unpropitious, inauspicious.
Associated words: convivial, conviviality. Associated words: plumassier, pterylography, endysis, ecdysis, moult, moulting, mew, desplumation, preen, barb, midrib, shaft, barbule, pompon, plumassary. Antonyms: insentient, unfeeling, stoic, impassive. Antonyms: insensibility, impassivity, numbness. Antonyms: real, sincere, unfeigned. Filices, Pteridophyta. Associated Words: pteridology, filicology, pteridologist, filical, filicic, filici-form, filicoid, frond, spore, filicite, cryptogamous.
Antonyms: infertility, infecundity, barrenness. Associated Words: febrifacient, febrific, febrierous, febrifuge, febrifugal, pyretology, pyretic.
Antonyms: constant, unwavering, steadfast, resolute. Antonyms: infidelity, faithlessness. Antonyms: tame, gentle, docile. Associated words: militant, combative, combativeness, bellicose, belligerent, pugnacious. Antonyms: coarse, crude, unbolted, stout, crass, thick. Associated Words: digital, digitation, interdigital. Associated Words: pyrology, pyrography, pyromania, pyrophobia, incendiary, incendiarism, arson, lurid, Moloch, fuel, combustible, pyroleter, smolder, ignis fatuusVulcan, Hephaestus.
Associated Words: pyrotechnics, pyrotechnist, pyrotechnician, pyrotechnic, pyrotechny. Antonyms: flaccid, soft, vacillating, irresolute, lax, yielding, facile, inconstant. Pisces; Piscifauna fishes of a regionAssociated words: ichthyology, ichthyologist, ichthyophagy, ichthyophagist, ichthyography, ichthyolatry, piscatology, pisciculturist, piscary, piscine, shoal, kench, minnow, aquarium, piscivorous, piscatorial, warren, spawn, cauf, creel, kibblings, bait, pisciform, piscinal.
Associated words: quinary, quintuple, quintuplicate, quincunx. Associated Words: quinquennial, quinquennially. Associated words: furl, unfurl. Associated Words: lambent, flamineous, flammiferous, flammivomous, flambage. Antonyms: convex, concave, warped, cambered, undulating, protuberant, projecting. Associated words: incarnate, incarnation, excarnate, excarnation, carnate, carneous, trichina, trichinosis, carnassial, carnification, carnify.
Antonyms: inflexible, incompliant. Associated Words: gregarious, gregal, gregariously, gregariousness. Associated Words: antediluvial, antediluvian, diluvial, diluvian, alluvium, alluvial, alluvion. Associated Words: farinaceous, farina, gluten, meal, aleurometer, aleuromancy, stive, dredge, bolt. Associated Words: floral, floricultural, floriculture, florist, floriculturist, florilege, florification, floriferous, botany, botanical, botanist, botanize, inflorescence, estivation, anther, petal, calyx, corolla, sepal, anthesis, anthography, anthoid, antholite, anthology, anthomania, anthophagous, anthophilous, anthotaxy, bouquet, bract, corona, corymb, cyme, chloranthy, efflorescence, Flora, perianth, pistil, pistillate, staminate, pollen, prefloration raceme, reflorescence, pollinate, pollination, stamen, stigma, umbel, verticil, verticillate, whorl, spadix, spathe, floriated, floriation.
Antonyms: continue, persist, adhere, abide, remain, stand fast. Associated words: hangar, aviator, aerodynamics, aviatrix. Associated Words: bromatology, bromatologist, alimental, alimentary, pabular, appetite, alimentation, nutrition, superalimentation, pantophagist, pantophagous, pantophagy, polyphagous, polyphagy, bromography, dietary, regimen, dietarian, dietetics, dieter, dietist, asitia, cater, caterer, sitology, chyle, chyme, victualer, steward, cibation, sitophobia, omnivorous, delicatessen, proteid, nitrogen, protein, commissariat, commissary.
Associated Words: stultify, stultification. Associated Words: chiropody, chiropodist, pedicure, orthopedy, orthopedic, orthopedist, pedal, plantigrade, bastinado, taligrade, palmigrade, cloven, ball, instep, phalanges. Antonyms: sloven, guy. Antonyms: slovenly, seedy. Antonyms: induce, inveigle, seduce, persuade.
Associated Words: dynamics, dyne, statics, perforce, dynamic, mechanics, brunt, kinit. Antonyms: spontaneous, voluntary, discretional, optional, elective. Antonyms: discretion, option, election, free-will. Associated Words: sylvan, sylviculture, nemophilist, nemophily, nemoral, afforest, afforestation, Silenus, hamadryad, glade, reforestize, reforestation, reboise, reafforest, forestry, forester, disboscation, disforest disforestation, hag, assart, camass, cruise, cruiser.
Law falsi crimen. Antonyms: unforgiving, implacable. Associated Words: paleontology, paleontography, ichnology, fossiliferous, in situ. Antonym: superstructure. Associated words: fundamental, basic, caisson. Associated Words: quadrisection quadripartite, quadripartition, quadruplication, quarter, quadruply, quadruple.
Reynard, Renard, tod, Charlie. Associated Words: vulpine, vulpicide, skulk. Antonyms: inodorous, scentless, fetid. Associated Words: collude, collusion, collusive, connivance. Antonyms: subject, reserved, formal, coercive, arbitrary, restrained, bound.
Antonyms: subjection, liability, dependence, heteronomy, reserve, constraint, subordination, repression. Antonyms: See unfriendly.
Antonyms: enmity, estrangement, alienation, disaffection, hostility, aloofness. Associated Words: Batrachomyomachy, ranarium, amphibious, batrachoid, batrachian, ranine. Associated Words: pomology, Pomona, pomologist, carpology, carpologist, carpophagous, drupe, carpomania, raceme, fructiferous, fructify, fructification, bletting, pulp, rind, orchard, nursery, pepinnery, fruitchafer, pomiculture, sarcocarp. Fungi, n. Associated Words: spawn, spore, mycophagy, fungivorous, mycetophagous, amanitine, mycelium, fungic, fungicide, fungoid, fungiform, fungous, mycologist.
Associated Words: cabinet-maker, cabinet-making, upholstering, shook. Associated words: decoy, croupier, capper, by-bidder. Antonyms: specific, definite. Antonyms: illiberal, ungenerous, stingy, scant, miserly, penurious.
Antonyms: drastic, refractory, vicious, brusque, harsh, rough, severe, rigorous, intractable, indocile. Antonyms: spurious, counterfeit, false, supposititious, adulterated. Antonyms: withhold, refuse. Antonyms: resist, withstand, continue, persist.
Antonyms: sad, sorrowful. See sad. Antonyms: disillusionment, disenchantment. Associated Words: vitrifacture, vitrifaction, vitrics, vitrify, vitriform, vitrified, vitrifiable, vitric, devitrify, devitrification, glazier, glazing, crizzel, invitrifiable vitreous, vitrescent, vitrescence, hyalography.
Antonyms: ignominy, dishonor, obscurity, ingloriousness, shame, reproach. Associated Words: deify, deification, apotheosize, apotheosis, theogony, Olympus, pantheon, deicide, deifie, deiform, mythology, polytheism, monotheism, theomachy, cuhemerism, monolatry, undeify, undeification, oracle.
God, n. Associated Words: theism, deism, atheism, theocracy, theocrasy, theology, theomachy, pantheism, acosmism, pancosmism, theocentric, thearchy, theomania, theosophy, theochristic, theodicy, theophany, demiurge, anthropomorphism, anthropomorphology, tetragrammaton, anthropopathism, psychotheism.
Associated words: alchemist, alchemy, auriferous, alloy, assay, assayer, assaying, filigree, aurated, auric, aureate, aurific, aurigraphy, aurivorous, aurocephalous, platinum, aurous, billet, carat, chlorination, chrysography, cupel, foil, cupellation, gild, orphrey, vermeil, gilded, gilding, gilt, orris, amalgamated, goldsmith, bonanza, schlich, inaurate, inauration, ingot, lingot, lode, nugget, ore, ormolu, pinchbeck, blick, Mannheim gold.
Associated Words: anserene, anserous, gosherd, yang, honk, gaggle, cackle. Antonyms: anarchy, license, subjection. Antonyms: See ungraceful. Associated Words: granary, sheaf, shock, farina, graniferous, chaff, glume, grits, groats, grist, Ceres, flail, thrash, windrow, frumentaceous, frumentation. Associated Words: vineyard, vineyardist, arbor, grapery, pergola, viticolous, marc, must, prokris, rape, coulure, racemation, tartar, argol.
Associated Words: agrostology, agrostologist, agrostography, gramineous, graze, palea, graminology, gramineal, swath, rowen, aftermath, turf, tussock, hassock, aftergrass, fog, glume, graminaceous.
Antonyms: sear, parched, seasoned, ripe, experienced, veteran. Antonyms: wane, atrophy, blast, diminish, stunt, stagnate. Antonyms: atrophy, decrease, blasting, undevelopment. Associated Word: cordon. Antonyms: ward, protege. Antonyms: innocence, inculpability. Associated Words: bayonet, gunsmith, bore, caliber, trigger, hammer, ramod, armory, armorer, gunsmithery, holster.
Associated Words: trichology, depilatory, depilitant, depilate, depilation, disheveled, bandeau, barrette, tonsure, pomade, follicle, sac, fillet, ecdysis, endysis, bandoline, piliferous, piliform, piligerous, coiffeur, tousled. Associated Words: peen, hephestic, poll. Associated Words: chirology, chiromancy, palmistry, chiropody, chiropodist, chirognomy, chirographer, chirographist, chirogymnast, chirologist, cheirosophy, manicure, chiromancer, manual, chirography, ambidextral, ambidextrous, ambidexterity, ambidexter, achirous, chiragra, fist, manacle, castanets, mount, discriminal, bimanual, bimanous.
Associated Words: gallows gibbet. Antonyms: sorrow, grief. Associated Words: eudemonics, eudemonist, eudemonism, eudemonic, beatify, beatification, hedonics, hedonist, hedonic, hedonism, felicific, felicitate, felicitation.
Antonyms: See unhappy. Associated Word: durometer. Antonyms: inharmonious, discordant, antagonistic, incompatible. Antonyms: discord, antagonism, variance, contention, incongruity, inconsistency, dissension, opposition. Antonyms: slowness, dilatoriness.
Antonyms: safety, security, assurance, certainty, surety. Associated Words: phrenology, All Will Fall Down - Social Deformity - Daltonism (CD), craniology, craniologist, cephalology, sinciput, occiput, cephalism, behead, decapitate, decapitation, capitation, vertex, crown, skull, cranium, fontanel, trepan, coronal, microcephaly, craniometry, macrocephaly, cephalic, per capitascalp. Associated Words: hygiene, Hygeia, hygienic, hygienics, eucrasy, sanitation, sanitarian, soteriology, eutrophic, hygienist, sanitary.
Antonyms: unhealthy, ill, sickly, morbid, delicate, diseased. Associated Words: auditory, acoumeter, acoumetry, acoustic, audible, audibility, audiometer, deaf, deafness, microcoustic, microphonous, otacoustic, inaudible, inaudibility, clairaudient, clairaudience, audient, audiphone, sonometer, audile.
Associated Words: cardiology, carditis, cardiac, cordial, cardialgia, cardiometry, dexiocardia, systole, diastole, pericardium, endocardium, auricle, ventricle, valve, aneurism, stethoscope, peridiastole. Associated Words: pyrology, pyrologist, thermology, pyrometry, pyrometer, pyronomics, calorifics, therm, thermal, pyrography, caloric, calorie, thermic, swelter, thermostat, thermometer, thermometry.
Antonyms: disregard, inattention. Antonyms: inattentive, uncircumspect, unmindful, careless, heedless. Associated words: altimetry, altimeter, hypsometry, hypsometer. Antonyms: asceticism, abstemiousness, moderation. Antonyms: mean, base, low, servile, abject, ignoble. Associated Words: sciatic, ischial, ischiatic, coxalgia, acetabulum.
Associated Words: historic, historicity, historian, historiology, historiography, Clio, prehistoric. Associated Word: porcine. Antonyms: incontinence, release. Antonyms: imperforation, closure. Associated words: auger, drill, gimlet, bodkin, bore, bit, puncture, perforate, pink, awl, stylet, imperforable, imperforate, punch, wimble, pierce, eyeleteer, dibble, plug, spigot, spile, gouge, puncheon, probe. Antonyms: convex, protuberant, sincere.
Associated Words: chrismatory, chrismation, chrismal, cruet, ampulla, unction. Associated Words: asperges, aspergill, aspergillum, aspersorium, aspersoir, stoup, font, benitier, cruet, hyssop. Associated Words: domestic, domesticate, domesticity, domestication, inhabitativeness. Associated Words: melliferous, mellific, mellification, metheglin, mellifluent, mellifluous, mellite, mellivorous, meliphagan, meliphagous, hydromel, mead, comb. Antonyms: dishonor, disesteem, irreverence, improbity, disrepute, reproach.
Associated Words: timocracy, timocratic, honorary, honorific. Associated Words: cornification, cornute, dehorn, croche, gore, crocket. Equus; male stallion, stud, sire; female mare, dam; young colt, foal, filly; small pony, tit, mustang; steed, charger, nag, gelding, cockhorse, cob, pad, padnag, roadster, punch, broncho, warragal, sumpter, centaur, hackney, jade, mestino, pintado, roan, bat horse, Bucephalus, Pegasus, Dobbin, Bayard, hobby-horse.
Associated words: equine, equestrian, equestrianism, equestrienne, equerry, fractious, hostler, groom, hostlery, postilion, coachman, jockey, hippocampus, hippogriffe, manege, chack, hippology, hippophile, hippotomy, tandem, equitation, farriery, equitant, paddock, hippiatrics, hippiatry, neigh, whinny, nicker, hopple.
Associated Words: hippophagy, hippophagism, hippophagist, hippophagous, equivorous. Associated words: nosocomial, hospitalism. Associated Word: xenial. Associated Words: ciborium, pyx, paten, monstrance, ostensory, ostension, ostensorium. Antonyms: discipline, deny, curb, mortify.
Associated Words: quarry, game, poaching, poacher, mort, yoicks, hoicks. Antonyms: bachelor, celibate. Associated Words: marital, monandry, polyandry cuckold, cuckoldom, henpecked. Pharisaical, canting, dissembling, sanctimonious, insincere.
Antonyms: sincere, unfeigned, undissembling, ingenuous. Associated Words: igloo, iceberg, glacier, floe, icicle, frazil, avalanche, curling, skate, skee, skating, skeeing, brash, glare, serac, crampoons, calk, glaciate, glaciation, creeper, anchor ice. Associated Word: Cocagne. Associated Words: idolater, idolatrous, idolatry, idolize, iconoplast, iconoclast, iconodule, idolomania, iconography, iconology, idoloclast, iconomachy, ting, iconolatry.
Antonyms: educated, instructed, schooled, trained, proficient, learned. Antonyms: hereafter, by and by, after a while. Associated Words: thurible, censer, thurification, thurify, frankincense, cense, thurifer. Indian, n. Associated Words: tepee, wigwam, tomahawk, lodge, wickiup, sachemdom, pueblo, calumet, totem, totemism, powwow, roanoke, coup, gens, Manito, pogamoggan, potlatch, chinook, runtee, travail, travois, strouding.
Antonyms: mortify, deny, suppress, restrain. Antonyms: mortification, denial, restraint, non-indulgence. Antonyms: idle, indolent, inactive, lazy. Associated Words: phlogistic, phlogogenous, antiphlogistic, demulcent delitescence. Antonyms: sojourner, pilgrim, visitor. Associated Words: vulnerable, vulnerability, invulnerable, invulnerability, inviolable, vulnific. Antonyms: indifferent, unconcerned, uninterested. Antonyms: sanity, rationality, lucidity. Associated Words: alienist, alienism. Associated Words: entomology, entomologist, entomologic, chrsalis, pupa, cicada, cocoon, credpitaculum, entomophilous, entornophily, entomtaxy, entomotomy, insecticidal, insectifuge, insectile, larva, lepidopterist, larvarium, stridor, stridulate, stridulation, silphology, stridulatory, nymph, horismology, imago.
Antonyms: unintentional, inadvertent, accidental. Antonyms: boredom, ennui, indifference, unconcern. Antonyms: disinterested, unconcerned, bored. Associated words: enterology, splanchnology, enterography, splanchnography, enteropathy, enteroplasty, enterotomy, enteralgia, enterolith, enteritis, intestinal, enteric, crypt, peristalsis, vermiculation, alvine, viscerate, visceration, eviscerate, evisceration, disembowel, disembowelment.
Associated Words: insular, insularity, archipelago, lagoon, coral, maroon, marooner. Associated Words: eburnean, eburnine, eburin, eburnification, eburnation. Japan, n. Nippon, Flowery Kingdom. Jew, n. Associated Words: Yiddish, ghetto, kosher, tref, Talmud, kittel, sephardic, Sanhedrim, synagogue, Jewry, Judaism, judaize.
Antonyms: disjoin, disconnect. See separate. Associated words: arthrology, arthrography, synosteology arthrectomy, synovia, articular, bursa, synovial, internode, internodal, anchylose, dislocate, dislocation, luxate, luxation. Associated Words: itinerary, itinerancy, viatic, viaticum. Associated Words: judicial, judicially, judicable, judicatory, judicature, judiciary. Associated Words: impanel, panel, venire, venire, facias, tales, talesman. Antonyms: dishonest, inequitable, undeserved.
See unjust. Associated Words: enucleate, enucleation, exacinate, exacination. Associated Words: nephrology, nephrotomy, nephritis, renal, emunctory, nephritic, loins, reins. Associated Words: regicide royalty, regnal, regnant, regnancy, regalia, viceroy, camarilla, dynastic, dynasty.
Antonyms: servile, mean, abject, slavish, unkingly. Associated Words: scullion, culinary, olitory. Associated Words: genuflect, genuflection, ham, hock, gonitis, stifle, geniculate, dib, quadriceps. Associated Words: cutler, cutlery, sheath, sheathe, unsheathe, scabbard, cultrivorous, cultrate, cultriform, tang, scale, spring, blade, kick, spatula.
Antonyms: unknowable, unascertainable, incognoscible, unrecognizable. Antonyms: sciolism, ignorance, inerudition, dilettanteism pedantry, unfamiliarity. Associated Words: agronomy, agronomist, agronomics, agronomic, agricultre, agricultral, agriculturist, georgics, geoponics, All Will Fall Down - Social Deformity - Daltonism (CD), arable, inarable, agrarian, agrarianism, agrarianize, topography, tilth, terrain, terrene, till, geoscopy, geoponic.
Associated Words: lingual, linguistic, linguist, linguistics, philology, philologist, philological, polyglot, glottology, glossology, paleography, glossologist, monoglot, grammar grammarian, chrestomathy, glossolaly, collingual.
Associated words: silphology, pupa, chrysalis. Antonyms: ephemeral, transitory, fleeting, transient, fugitive, impermanent. Antonyms: illaudable, unpraiseworthy, indign.
See funny. Associated Words: risible, risibles, risibility, risorial, abderian, sardonic, geloscopy, gelastic. Associated Words: jurisprudence, nomology, nomography, nomocracy, antinomy, dysnomy, neonomian, code, codex, codify, codification, digest, forensic, legislate, legislation, legislative, enact, ordain, repeal, veto, jurat, juratory, juridic, juridical, jurist, juris consult, publicist, jurisprudent, juristic, pandect, moratory, judicial, causidical, nomothetic, nomistic.
Associated Words: litigant, litigate, litigious, litigable, barratry. Associated Words: client, clientele. Antonyms: diligent, industrious, sedulous, hardworking.
Associated words: foliar, foliferous, foliaceous, foliation, defoliate, defoliation, frond, bract, frondation, frondesce, frondescence, verticil, whorl, acanthus deciduous, indeciduous.
Associated Words: savant, philomath, philomathy, misology, oracle, pedant, pedantry. Associated Words: sinister, sinistral, sinistrality, sinistrorse, sinistrorsal, haw, port, larboard. Associated Words: crotch, hock, hough, solen, cradle, puttee, hip, thigh, haunch gyve, scarpines, calf, galligaskins, spatterdashes, leggings.
Associated Words: correspond, epistolical, epistolary, epistolean, epistolize, epistler, epistolar, epistolography, postscript. Antonyms: undulating uneven, concave, convex, warped. Antonyms: chaste, modest, pure. Antonyms: chastity, modesty, purity. Antonyms: exempt, immune. Antonyms: illiberal, ungenerous, stingy, limited, narrow, bigoced. Antonyms: captivity, bondage, servitude, subjection, constraint, serfdom, slavery. Associated Words: biology, biologist, vital, biometry, biogenesis, macrobiotics, vitalization, vitalize, bioplasm, protoplasm, elixir, biotic.
Associated Words: photology, photologist, photophobia, catoptrics, dioptrics, photics, Ormuzd, luminary. Antonyms: unlikelihood, improbability. Antonyms: unlikely, improbable. Antonyms: distaste, aversion, inappetency, hatred, antipathy, disapproval.
Antonyms: See stiff. Associated Words: calcareous, calciferous, calcariferous, calcification, calcify, calcified, calcivorous, calcination, calciform, slack, cretification, calcigerous, kalsomine.
Antonyms: See unlimited. Associated Words: aliner, alignment, allineation, align, linear, lineal, lineation, interline, interlinear, interlining, interlineation. Associated Words: labial, labially, labialize, labialization, labialism, chiloma, labret, philtrum, pout, labiochorea, cheiloplasty, labioplasty, harelip, blobber lip. See small. Antonyms: slow, sluggish, inactive, quiet. Associated Words: hepatic, hepatology, hepatize, hepatization, cirrhosis, cirrhotic, giblets, bilious, viscera, hepatogenic, bile.
Associated Words: mascot, hoodoo. Associated words: pulmonary, pulmonic, pneumonic, pleura, pleural lobe, spirometer, pneumology. Antonym: anaphrodisia. See sexual desire. See angry. Associated Words: anthropology, anthropogeny, anthropography, anthropolite, anthropoid, anthropometry, anthropometric, anthropocentric, anthropomorphic, android, manikin, ecorche, pithecanthrope, androphobia. Associated Words: cartography, cartographer, chorography, chorographer, atlas, hachure, contour line, culture.
Associated words: marmoreal, marmorean. Associated Words: emarginate, emargination. Antonyms: celibacy, divorce, bachelorhood, maidenhood. Associated Words: misogamy, misogamist, affiance, affianced, affinity, intermarriage, conjugality, misalliance, agamist, benedict, betroth, betrothal, desponsory, ante-nuptial, sponsal, hymeneal, schatchen, connubial, connubiality, fiance, Hymen, fiancee, troth, plight, nuptial, nuptiality, postnuptial, morganatic, banns, neogamist, matrimonial.
Associated Words: masseuse, masseur, massotherapeutics, massotherapy. Associated Word: dominicide. Associated Words: material, immaterial, materiality, immateriality, atom, molecule, chemistry, hylism, hylotheism, hylopathism, hylogenesis, materialism, physics, somatics, somatology. They released 3 records.
The first and the second-one were released on vinyl version too. Today you can enjoy their second album. Zhruba od Oni doobeda, Ragtime poobede. Playing since Maybe it can be described as Really great. But yes, lyrics are important too, because poems and so ZORN, impro and ambient stuff. Maybe one day on this blog too. Also Martin Burlas playing there - I mentioned him before on this blog.
He was one of the most important slovakian "alternative" artsist of 80s.
Foolish Little Girl - The Shirelles - The Worlds Greatest Girls Group (CD), In My Dreams - Various - The Tuneful Twenties Compiled & Annotated By David A. Jasen (Vinyl, LP), South Promenade - Mario Monte And His Music, Jack Wolfe And His Music - Mario Monte And His Music /J, Ave Maria (Sancta) - Blondes - The Satin Album (CD, Album), Por Ti - Los Apson - Atras De La Raya (Vinyl, LP), Lamento Di Uno Spacciatore - Skiantos - Signore Dei Dischi (Cassette, Album), These Days - The Hours - See The Light (Vinyl, LP), Shubert: Moment Musical In F Major - E. Power Biggs - Holiday For Harpsichord (Vinyl, LP), Memories - Long Knife - Meditations On Self Destruction (Vinyl, LP, Album), Deggial - Therion - Live Gothic (DVD, Album), 무상 - Crash (37) - The Massive Crush (CD, Album), Its So Weird - Bush Tetras - Boom In The Night (Original Studio Recordings 1980-1983) (Vinyl, LP)