Pinder, citing his young family, and by then probably considering the band's touring days behind them, excused himself from the touring commitments that were to follow. His decision caused acrimony within the band notably from Edge and Ray Thomas had said Pinder was initially agreeable to touring, but his opting out later on with a major comeback tour already planned was a severely embarrassing blow to them.
Attempts were made by their management to downplay Pinder's absence, notably at a major UK music press party Decca organised, when the top Our Guessing Game - The Moody Blues - Every Good Boy Deserves Favour (Vinyl dignitary guest, while making a "welcome back" speech, openly referred to "Mike Pinder being currently absent over in the States ", much to their dismay.
During this period, the prog-rock band Yes had asked their keyboardist Patrick Moraz to leave, and he joined the Moody Blues as keyboardist for the Octave World Tour.
The album sold well and produced the hits " Steppin' in a Slide Zone ", no. By they were ready to record again, this time bringing in producer Pip Williams. Moraz was retained as the band's permanent keyboardist, though Pinder had originally understood that he would continue to record even if not touring with the band.
Pinder took legal action to prevent the new Moody Blues album from reaching the public without his contributions, but he was not successful, and ultimately, he never returned to the fold. Nevertheless, when released inLong Distance Voyager was a colossal success, reaching No. The album yielded two hits, " The Voice ", No. Edge provided "22, Days" featuring Thomas as lead voice with Hayward and Lodge while Thomas' contributions were the final portion of the set with his singing on the final two songs; "Painted Smile", "Reflective Smile" a poem narrated by a DJ friend of the band and "Veteran Cosmic Rocker".
By now, the mellotron had long been set aside as their primary keyboard instrument on their studio albums and the band embraced a more modern, less symphonic approach, though still retaining a lush keyboard-led sound as Moraz gave a more contemporary edge [ citation needed ].
In live concerts, the mellotron was still used heavily by Moraz until the mids, including on songs that did not originally feature it. The Presentagain produced by Williams, was less successful than its predecessor, though it spawned a UK Top 40 hit No. Videos were also produced for both singles. The album was supported by The Present Tour. Newly employed producer Tony Visconti and Barry Radman, a synth programmer formerly engaged by Moraz, delivered a modern sound the Moodies had been seeking in order to remain competitive with their pop contemporaries and the album's title song also charted in the US, at No.
The renewed interest in the band ensured a younger audience, with many of their longtime followers remaining loyal despite a fair number of older fans finding the albums of this period far more lightweight in content - for example, Lodge had gone from writing powerfully reflective mystical or humanitarian themed pieces such as "House of Four Doors", "Candle of Life" and "One More Time to Live" to quirkier items such as "Here Comes the Weekend", "Rock and Roll Over You" and "Love is on the Run From Me " while Hayward's songs seemed [ citation needed ] less the deeper drama of numbers such as "The Actor", "Dawning is the Day", "You Can Never Go Home", "The Land of Make Believe", etc.
However, over time, more of the "Core Seven" album era favourites reappeared in their playlist, but Pinder's compositions were permanently retired from their setlists after his departure. The band played four songs, and later provided backup with Electric Light Orchestra for George Harrison. Their sound took on an ever-increasingly synthetic and technical quality as Moraz and Visconti began using modern sequencers, samplers and drum machines.
Hayward and Lodge wrote and sang on most of the songs as the band came under pressure from their new record company, Polydor Recordsto promote those it deemed to be the two more commercial looking and sounding members and they decided to exploit that aspect rather than catering for the band as a whole or retaining the five-way songwriting methods the group had done with Pinder. By then, Ray Thomas was playing a diminished role in the recording studio with the band evolving into a synthpop act, a genre that was unsuitable for the use of a flute.
Thomas provided additional percussion, notably a brisk tambourine, on many more Moodies songs which continued to be featured, plus occasional harmonica, but by this point he was largely relegated to the status of a backup singer and he was also unwell during this period, further limiting his involvement with the band in the recording studio.
Thomas provided some backing vocals for both The Other Side of Life and Sur La Mer ; however, for reasons unclear, multiple production considerations led Visconti to leave Thomas' vocals off the latter of these two albums, thereby further reducing the texture of their overall vocal sound, which had previously been rich four-part harmonies Hayward, Lodge, Thomas and Pinderthen went down to three Thomas, Lodge and Hayward upon Pinder's departure and reduced still further to just the more similar-sounding voices of Hayward and Lodge Lodge also providing falsetto vocals and high harmonieswith Pinder and Thomas each having provided both lower and higher-pitched vocal harmonies in the group's earlier vocal sound.
The band's vocal "sound" had become the blend of just Hayward and Lodge, which was still recognisable, if less textured than the original four-part, more complex "choral" sound. Moraz was displeased with Visconti's exclusion of Thomas from the final release of Sur La Mer and accused him of tailoring the album for radio, as revealed in a newspaper article where it revealed Moraz's anger with the state of the band and at Visconti in particular.
Despite his diminished participation in the recording process, Thomas' high value remained on stage primarily from his continued ability to sing out his s and s Moodies classics, and also in flute and keyboard duets he composed with Moraz which were performed only during Moodies' concerts.
The band had begun to reinforce their concert sound in with the addition of a second keyboardist. Bias Boshell was the first, replaced in by Guy Allison before Boshell returned byas well as female backing singers. Inhalfway through the production of their new studio album, Patrick Moraz did an interview with Keyboard magazine and made some comments in the article that suggested dissatisfaction with his role in the Moodies.
His complaints ranged from the Moodies' music becoming too simple in structure to the other members' reluctance to allow him to make significant contributions to the songwriting on their albums. He also was occupied with spending large amounts of time planning a music concert to celebrate his native Switzerland 's th anniversary instead of rehearsing with the Moodies and as a result, he was fired from the group before the project was completed, so Boshell and new keyboardist Paul Bliss were brought in to finish the new album's keyboard tracks.
Despite previous credits as an "official band member" and being included in group photos on the four '80s studio albums from "Long Distance Voyager" to "Sur La Mer", subsequent Moodies compilations downplay Moraz to being merely an "additional keyboardist" and several band photos have him cropped or airbrushed out, notably on the covers to Gold which did not even mention him in the booklet liner notes, let alone include his picture and the more recent compilation Polydor Years — Keys of the Kingdomreleased inhad modest commercial success when released and once again, Hayward's songs led off the album, with the new singles " Say It with Love " and " Bless the Wings That Bring You Back.
Lodge made a defining shift in his songwriting on this album, leaving his trademark high-energy rock music, and instead gravitating towards slow love ballads such as "Lean on Me Tonight " though he had earlier contributed some songs in this gentler vein such as "Emily's Song" for his daughter in"Survival" inand "Talking Out of Turn" inwhile his more powerful songs continued with "Magic" and the Lennonesque "Shadows on the Wall". This gentler trend continued on the two successive Moodies albums.
Hayward wrote the driving two-part piece "Say What You Mean. The ensuing tour saw them invited to play at the Montreux Jazz Festival. A non-album Hayward-Lodge song cut at these sessions, "Highway", was included on the "Say It with Love" twelve-inch single and on a later box set and compilation albumwhile the vinyl album did not include their song "Once is Enough" as on the compact disc version.
The group remained a steady concert draw, and a series of video and audio versions of their Night at Red Rocks concert enjoyed great success, particularly as a fund-raiser for American public television where it had been first broadcast. The group also continued their use of additional musicians on stage and in the studio, but after the two legal suits from both Pinder in and Moraz inthe band was careful not to recognise future keyboardists as official members.
Following on from his contributions as keyboardist on the 'Keys of the Kingdom' album, Paul Bliss continued to play keyboards for the band live, being promoted to first keyboardist in but was replaced in March after 19 years continuous service.
After Edge injured himself insecond drummer Gordon Marshall was brought in to back him up; he stayed with the group after Edge returned and remained in the position until autumn of when he left to play in a Moody Blues cover band "Legend of a Band" and another cover band "Reflections".
From to the group took a hiatus from recording and spent time trying to perfect the art of performing live with an orchestra.
The recording hiatus ended inwith the album Strange Timestheir first album in almost two decades to be more than moderately received by British critics, although Justin Hayward was quoted as saying he was disappointed at the album's chart performance — probably not helped by the long recording hiatus — which was notably less than Keys of the Kingdom in It was recorded in ReccoItaly, at Hayward's suggestion, and was the band's first self-produced effort.
The album featured keyboards and arrangements from Italian musician Danilo Madonia, who continued to work in-studio with the band. The album opened with "English Sunset" a pop song featuring a modern, nearly techno arrangement.
Strange Times was also the first album since to include a new poem by Graeme Edge, "Nothing Changes", narrated by Edge, with Hayward then singing the concluding portion of the track, and notably concluded by quoting Mike Pinder's song title "A Simple Game". This was taken from the last tour on which Boshell played. He left the live line-up in ; Bliss took over first keyboard duties, with his former second keyboard role filled by Bernie Barlow and Julie Ragins when Barlow took maternity leave from to The soundtrack also featured Justin Hayward performing vocals and playing guitar throughout.
The new millennium saw the Moody Blues reducing their touring schedule. At the end offounding member Ray Thomas retired from the group, reducing the Moody Blues to the trio of Hayward, Lodge and Edge, the last being the only original member. Flautist and rhythm guitarist Norda Mullen was recruited early the following year for their North American tour, and has worked with the band live and in the studio since then. Toward the end ofthey released an album entitled December.
December was the group's first album to include covers since their debut album The Magnificent Moodies. Other times, I simply couldn't hear what she was saying. She didn't seem to care one way or another. Once she had finished saying whatever she wanted to say, she'd face front again and keep on walking. Oh, well, I told myself, it was a nice day for a stroll.
This was no mere stroll for Naoko, though, judging from that walk. From there she followed the tram tracks to Komagome. It was a challenging route. By the time we reached Komagome, the sun was sinking and the day had become a soft spring evening. We made this big arc. I was just following you. Thirsty, I had a whole beer to myself.
Neither of us said a word from the time we gave our order to the time we finished eating. I was exhausted from all that walking, and she just sat there with her hands on the table, mulling something over again. All the leisure spots were crowded on this warm Sunday, they were saying on the TV news. And we just walked from Yotsuya to Komagome, I said to myself. I used to do the 10, metres. And my father took me mountain climbing on Sundays ever since I can remember.
You know our house - right there, next to the mountain. I've always had strong legs. But you can't judge a book by its cover. We've never done that before, just the two of us," I said, trying without success to recall what we had talked about. She was playing with the ashtray on the table. Do you think we could see each other again? I know I don't have any right to be asking you this. What do you mean by that?
My reaction to her request might have been a little too strong. I can't really explain it," she said, tugging the sleeves of her sweatshirt up over the elbows and down again. The soft hair on her arms shone a lovely golden colour in the lights of the shop. I was looking for another way to put it. Failing, she sighed and closed her eyes and played with her hairslide.
I'm not sure how to put it, either. I try to say something, but all I get are the wrong words - the wrong words or the exact opposite words from what I mean. I try to correct myself, and that only makes it worse.
I lose track of what I was trying to say to begin with. It's like I'm split in two and playing tag with myself. One half is chasing the other half around this big, fat post. The other me has the right words, but this me can't catch her. Tell you the truth, I know I saw you a lot back then, but I don't remember talking to you much. I'll be expecting to hear from you. She was also in the sixth-form at a posh girls' school run by one of the Christian missions.
The school was so refined you were considered unrefined if you studied too much. Naoko was the girlfriend of my best and only friend, Kizuki. The two of them had been close almost from birth, their houses not yards apart. As with most couples who have been together since childhood, there was a casual openness about the relationship of Kizuki and Naoko and little sense that they wanted to be alone together.
They were always visiting each other's homes and eating or playing mah-jong with each other's families. I double-dated with them any number of times. Naoko would bring a school friend for me and the four of us would go to the zoo or the pool or the cinema. The girls she brought were always pretty, but Our Guessing Game - The Moody Blues - Every Good Boy Deserves Favour (Vinyl little too refined for my taste.
I got along better with the somewhat cruder girls from my own State school who were easier to talk to. I could never tell what was going on inside the pretty heads of the girls that Naoko brought along, and they probably couldn't understand me, either. After a while, Kizuki gave up trying to arrange dates for me, and instead the three of us would do things together. Kizuki and Naoko and I: odd, but that was the most comfortable combination. Introducing a fourth person into the mix would always make things a little awkward.
We were like a TV talk show, with me the guest, Kizuki the talented host, and Naoko his assistant. True, he had a sarcastic side that often struck people as arrogant, but in fact he was a considerate and fair- minded person. He would distribute his remarks and jokes fairly to Naoko and to me, taking care to see that neither of us felt left out.
If one or the other stayed quiet too long, he would steer his conversation in that direction and get the person to talk. It probably looked harder than it was: he knew how to monitor and adjust the air around him on a second-by-second basis.
In addition, he had a rare talent for finding the interesting parts of someone's generally uninteresting comments so that, while speaking to him, you felt you were an exceptionally interesting person with an exceptionally interesting life. And yet he was not the least bit sociable. I was his only real friend at school. I could never understand why such a smart and capable talker did not turn his talents to the broader world around him but remained satisfied to concentrate on our little trio.
Nor could I understand why he picked me to be his friend. I was just an ordinary kid who liked to read books and listen to music and didn't stand out in any way that would prompt someone like Kizuki to pay attention to me. We hit it off straight away, though. His father was a dentist, known for his professional skill and his high fees. The three of us spent a lot of time together, but whenever Kizuki left the room, Naoko and I had trouble talking to each other.
We never knew what to talk about. And in fact there was no topic of conversation that we had in common. Instead of talking, we'd drink water or toy with something on the table and wait for Kizuki to come back and start up the conversation again. Not that we were incompatible: we just had nothing to talk about. Naoko and I saw each other only once after Kizuki's funeral. I tried raising several different topics, but none of them led anywhere.
And when Naoko did talk, there was an edge to her voice. She seemed angry with me, but I had no idea why. We never saw each other again until that day a year later we happened to meet on the Chuo Line in Tokyo.
Naoko might have been angry with me because I, not she, had been the last one to see Kizuki. That may not be the best way to put it, but I more or less understood how she felt.
I would have swapped places with her if I could have, but finally, what had happened had happened, and there was nothing I could do about it. It had been a nice afternoon in May. After lunch, Kizuki suggested we skip classes and go play pool or something. I had no special interest in my afternoon classes, so together we left school, ambled down the hill to a pool hall on the harbour, and played four games.
When I won the first, easy-going game, he became serious and won the next three. This meant I paid, according to our custom. Kizuki didn't make a single joke as we played, which was most unusual. We smoked afterwards. He died that night in his garage. He led a rubber hose from the exhaust pipe of his N to Our Guessing Game - The Moody Blues - Every Good Boy Deserves Favour (Vinyl window, taped over the gap in the window, and revved the engine. I have no idea how long it took him to die.
His parents had been out visiting a sick relative, and when they opened the garage to put their car away, he was already dead. Kizuki had left no suicide note, and had no motive that anyone could think of. Because I had been the last one to see him, I was called in for questioning by the police. I told the investigating officer that Kizuki had given no indication of what he was about to do, that he had been exactly the same as always. The policeman had obviously formed a poor impression of both Kizuki and me, as if it was perfectly natural for the kind of person who would skip classes and play pool to commit suicide.
A small article in the paper brought the affair to a close. Kizuki's parents got rid of his red N For a time, a white flower marked his school desk. In the ten months between Kizuki's death and my exams, I was unable to find a place for myself in the world around me.
I started sleeping with one of the girls at school, but that didn't last six months. Nothing about her really got to me. I applied to a private university in Tokyo, the kind of place with an entrance exam for which I wouldn't have to study much, and I passed without exhilaration. The girl asked me not to go to Tokyo - "It's miles from here! I wanted to begin a new life where I didn't know a soul. And so we parted. Thinking about all the things that made her so much nicer than the other girls at home, I sat on the bullet train to Tokyo feeling terrible about what I'd done, but there was no way to undo it.
I would try to forget her. There was only one thing for me to do when I started my new life in the dorm: stop taking everything so seriously; establish a proper distance between myself and everything else.
It seemed to work at first. I tried hard to forget, but there remained inside me a vague knot of air. And Our Guessing Game - The Moody Blues - Every Good Boy Deserves Favour (Vinyl time went by, the knot began to take on a clear and simple form, a form that I am able to put into words, like this: Death exists, not as the opposite but as a part of life.
Death exists - in a paperweight, in four red and white balls on a pool table - and we go on living and breathing it into our lungs like fine dust. Until that time, I had understood death as something entirely separate from and independent of life. The hand of death is bound to take us, I had felt, but until the day it reaches out for us, it leaves us alone. This had seemed to me the simple, logical truth. Life is here, death is over there. I am here, not over there.
The night Kizuki died, however, I lost the ability to see death and life in such simple terms. Death was not the opposite of life. It was already here, within my being, it had always been here, and no struggle would permit me to forget that.
When it took the year-old Kizuki that night in May, death took me as well. I lived through the following spring, at 18, with that knot of air in my chest, but I struggled all the while against becoming serious. Becoming serious was not the same thing as approaching the truth, I sensed, however vaguely. But death was a fact, a serious fact, no matter how you looked at it.
Stuck inside this suffocating contradiction, I went on endlessly spinning in circles. Those were strange days, now that I look back at them. In the midst of life, everything revolved around death.
I suppose I can call it a date. I can't think of a better word for it. As before, we walked the streets.
We stopped somewhere for coffee, walked some more, had dinner in the evening, and said goodbye. Again, she talked only in snatches, but this didn't seem to bother her, and I made no special effort to keep the conversation going. We talked about whatever came to mind - our daily routines, our colleges; each a little fragment that led nowhere.
We said nothing at all about the past. And mainly, we walked - and walked, and walked. Fortunately, Tokyo is such a big city we could never have covered it all. We kept on walking like this almost every weekend. She would lead, and I would follow close behind. Naoko had a variety of hairslides and always wore them with her right ear exposed. I remember her most clearly this way, from the back. She would toy with her hairslide whenever she felt embarrassed by something. And she was always dabbing at her mouth with a handkerchief.
She did this whenever she had something to say. The more I observed these habits of hers, the more I came to like her.
Naoko went to a girls' college on the rural western edge of Tokyo, a nice little place famous for its teaching of English. Nearby was a narrow irrigation canal with clean, clear water, and Naoko and I would often walk along its banks. Sometimes she would invite me up to her flat and cook for me. It never seemed to concern her that the two of us were in such close quarters together. She led a spare, simple life with hardly any friends.
No one who had known her at school could have imagined her like this. Back then, she had dressed with real flair and surrounded herself with a million friends. When I saw her room, I realized that, like me, she had wanted to go away to college and begin a new life far from anyone she knew.
We were all supposed to go somewhere more chic. You know what I mean? Little by little, she grew more accustomed to me, and I to her. When the summer holidays ended and a new term started, Naoko began walking next to me as if it were the most natural thing in the world to do.
She saw me as a friend now, I concluded, and walking side by side with such a beautiful girl was by no means painful for me. We kept walking all over Tokyo in the same meandering way, climbing hills, crossing rivers and railway lines, just walking and walking with no destination in mind. We forged straight ahead, as if our walking were a religious ritual meant to heal our wounded spirits.
If it rained, we used umbrellas, but in any case we walked. Then came autumn, and the dormitory grounds were buried in zelkova leaves. The fragrance of a new season arrived when I put on my first pullover. Having worn out one pair of shoes, I bought some new suede ones. I can't seem to recall what we talked about then. Nothing special, I expect. We continued to avoid any mention of the past and rarely spoke about Kizuki.
We could face each other over coffee cups in total silence. Naoko liked to hear me tell stories about Storm Trooper.
Once he had a date with a fellow student a girl in geography, of course but came back in the early evening looking glum. Each time the photo changed in his absence, Storm Trooper became upset. They're all nice pictures. You should be grateful. Not many things succeeded in doing that, so I talked about him often, though I was not exactly proud of myself for using him this way. He just happened to be the youngest son in a not-too-wealthy family who had grown up a little too serious for his own good.
Making maps was the one small dream of his one small life. Who had the right to make fun of him for that? By then, however, Storm-Trooper jokes had become an indispensable source of dormitory talk, and there was no way for me to undo what I had done. Besides, the sight of Naoko's smiling face had become my own special source of pleasure. I went on supplying everyone with new stories. Naoko asked me one time - just once - if I had a girl I liked.
I told her about the one I had left behind in Kobe. I don't know, sometimes I think I've got this hard kernel in my heart, and nothing much can get inside it. I doubt if I can really love anybody. She didn't ask me more than that. I could sense her breathing through the thick cloth of her duffel coat. She would entwine her arm with mine, or cram her hand in my pocket, or, when it was really cold, cling tightly to my arm, shivering.
None of this had any special meaning. I just kept walking with my hands shoved in my pockets. Our rubber-soled shoes made hardly any sound on the pavement, except for the dry crackling when we trod on the broad, withered sycamore leaves. I felt sorry for Naoko whenever I heard that sound. My arm was not the one she needed, but the arm of someone else. My warmth was not what she needed, but the warmth of someone else.
I felt almost guilty being me. As the winter deepened, the transparent clarity of Naoko's eyes seemed to increase. It was a clarity that had nowhere to go. Sometimes Naoko would lock her eyes on to mine for no apparent reason. She seemed to be searching for something, and this would give me a strange, lonely, helpless sort of feeling.
I wondered if she was trying to convey something to me, something she could not put into words - something prior to words that she could not grasp within herself and which therefore had no hope of ever turning into words. Instead, she would fiddle with her hairslide, dab at the corners of her mouth with a handkerchief, or look into my eyes in that meaningless way.
I wanted to hold her tight when she did these things, but I would hesitate and hold back. I was afraid I might hurt her. And so the two of us kept walking the streets of Tokyo, Naoko searching for words in space. The guys in the dorm would always tease me when I got a call from Naoko or went out on a Sunday morning.
They assumed, naturally enough, that I had found a girlfriend. There was no way to explain the truth to them, and no need to explain it, so I let them think what they wanted to. I had to face a barrage of stupid questions in the evening - what position had we used? What was she like down there? What colour underwear had she been wearing that day? And so I went from 18 to Each day the sun would rise and set, the flag would be raised and lowered.
Every Sunday I would have a date with my dead friend's girl. I had no idea what I was doing or what I was going to do. For my courses I would read Claudel and Racine and Eisenstein, but they meant almost nothing to me. I made no friends at the lectures, and hardly knew anyone in the dorm. The others in the dorm thought I wanted to be a writer because I was always alone with a book, but I had no such ambition.
There was nothing I wanted to be. I tried to talk about this feeling with Naoko. She, at least, would be able to understand what I was feeling with some degree of precision, I thought. But I could never find the words to express myself. Strange, I seemed to have caught her word-searching sickness. On Saturday nights I would sit by the phone in the lobby, waiting for Naoko to call. Most of the others were out, so the lobby was usually deserted. I would stare at the grains of light suspended in that silent space, struggling to see into my own heart.
What did I want? And what did others want from me? But I could never find the answers. Sometimes I would reach out and try to grasp the grains of light, but my fingers touched nothing. I read a lot, but not a lot of different books: I like to read my favourites again and again.
Scott Fitzgerald, Raymond Chandler, but I didn't see anyone else in my lectures or the dorm reading writers like that.
They liked Kazumi Takahashi, Kenzaburo Oe, Yukio Mishima, or contemporary French novelists, which was another reason I didn't have much to say to anybody but kept to myself and my books. With my eyes closed, I would touch a familiar book and draw its fragrance deep inside me. This was enough to make me happy. Gatsby stayed in first place for a long time after that. I would pull it off the shelf when the mood hit me and read a section at random. It never LP disappointed me. There wasn't a boring page in the whole book.
I wanted to tell people what a wonderful novel it was, but no one around me had read The Great Gatsby or was likely to. Urging others to read F Scott Fitzgerald, although not a reactionary act, was not something one could do in When I did finally meet the one person in my world who had read Gatsby, he and I became friends because of it. His name was Nagasawa.
He was two years older than me, and because he was doing legal studies at the prestigious Tokyo University, he was on the fast track to national leadership. We lived in the same dorm and knew each other only by sight, until one day when I was reading Gatsby in a sunny spot in the dining hall.
He sat down next to me and asked what I was reading. When I told him, he asked if I was enjoying it. This happened in October. The better I got to know Nagasawa, the stranger he seemed. I had met a lot of weird people in my day, but none as strange as Nagasawa. He was a far more voracious reader than me, but he made it a rule never to touch a book by any author who had not been dead at least 30 years. Life is too short. If you only read the books that everyone else is reading, you can only think what everyone else is thinking.
That's the world of hicks and slobs. I testi venivano scritti da destra a sinistra, da sinistra a destra, e anche in modo che le linee alternate si leggessero in direzioni opposte. Le tavolette di cera erano assicelle di legno ricoperte da uno strato abbastanza spesso di cera che veniva incisa da uno stilo. Avevano il vantaggio di essere riutilizzabili: la cera poteva essere fusa e riformare una "pagina bianca".
Erano utilizzate anche le cortecce di albero, come per esempio quelle della Tiliae altri materiali consimili. La parola greca per papiro come materiale di scrittura biblion e libro biblos proviene dal porto fenicio di Bibloda dove si esportava il papiro verso la Grecia. Tomus fu usato dai latini con lo stesso significato di volumen vedi sotto anche la spiegazione di Isidoro di Siviglia.
Che fossero fatti di papiro, pergamena o carta, i rotoli furono la forma libraria dominante della cultura ellenisticaromanacinese ed ebraica. Gli autori cristiani potrebbero anche aver voluto distinguere i loro scritti dai testi pagani scritti su rotoli. La storia del libro continua a svilupparsi con la graduale transizione dal rotolo al codexspostandosi dal Vicino Oriente del II - II millennio a.
Fino al II secolo d. All'arrivo del Medioevocirca mezzo millennio dopo, i codici - di foggia e costruzione in tutto simili al libro moderno - rimpiazzarono il rotolo e furono composti principalmente di pergamena. Quattro son troppi? Anche nei suoi distici, Marziale continua a citare il codex: un anno prima del suddetto, una raccolta di distici viene pubblicata con lo scopo di accompagnare donativi.
Questa mole composta da numerosi fogli contiene quindici libri poetici del Nasone». Dal II secolo a. Nel mondo antico non godette di molta fortuna a causa del prezzo elevato rispetto a quello del papiro. Il libro in forma di rotolo consisteva in fogli preparati da fibre di papiro phylire disposte in uno strato orizzontale lo strato che poi riceveva la scrittura sovrapposto ad uno strato verticale la faccia opposta. La scrittura era effettuata su colonne, generalmente sul lato del papiro che presentava le fibre orizzontali.
Non si hanno molte testimonianze sui rotoli di pergamena tuttavia la loro forma era simile a quella dei libri in papiro. Gli inchiostri neri utilizzati erano a base di nerofumo e gomma arabica. Dal II secolo d. La vecchia forma libraria a rotolo scompare in ambito librario.
In forma notevolmente differente permane invece in ambito archivistico. Questo mezzo, permettendo l'accelerazione della produzione delle copie di testi contribuisce alla diffusione del libro e della cultura. Altri suoi distici rivelano che tra i regali fatti da Marziale c'erano copie di Virgiliodi Cicerone e Livio. Le parole di Marziale danno la distinta impressione che tali edizioni fossero qualcosa di recentemente introdotto.
Sono stati rinvenuti "taccuini" contenenti fino a dieci tavolette. Nel tempo, furono anche disponibili modelli di lusso fatti con tavolette di avorio invece che di legno. Ai romani va il merito di aver compiuto questo passo essenziale, e devono averlo fatto alcuni decenni prima della fine del I secolo d. Il grande vantaggio che offrivano rispetto ai rolli era la capienza, vantaggio che sorgeva dal fatto che la facciata esterna del rotolo era lasciata in bianco, vuota.
Il codice invece aveva scritte entrambe le facciate di ogni pagina, come in un libro moderno. La prima pagina porta il volto del poeta. I codici di cui parlava erano fatti di pergamena ; nei distici che accompagnavano il regalo di una copia di Omeroper esempio, Marziale la descrive come fatta di "cuoio con molte pieghe".
Ma copie erano anche fatte di fogli di papiro. Quando i greci ed i romani disponevano solo del rotolo per scrivere libri, si preferiva usare il papiro piuttosto che la pergamena. I ritrovamenti egiziani ci permettono di tracciare il graduale rimpiazzo del rotolo da parte del codice.
Fece la sua comparsa in Egitto non molto dopo il tempo di Marziale, nel II secolo d. Il suo debutto fu modesto. A tutt'oggi sono stati rinvenuti 1. Verso il d. I ritrovamenti egiziani gettano luce anche sulla transizione del codex dal papiro alla pergamena. Sebbene gli undici codici della Bibbia datati in quel secolo fossero papiracei, esistono circa 18 codici dello stesso secolo con scritti pagani e quattro di questi sono in pergamena. Non ne scegliemmo alcuno, ma ne raccogliemmo altri otto per i quali gli diedi dracme in conto.
Il codex tanto apprezzato da Marziale aveva quindi fatto molta strada da Roma. Nel terzo secolo, quando tali codici divennero alquanto diffusi, quelli di pergamena iniziarono ad essere popolari. In breve, anche in Egittola fonte mondiale del papiroil codice di pergamena occupava una notevole quota di mercato. Sono tutti di pergamena, edizioni eleganti, scritti in elaborata calligrafia su sottili fogli di pergamena.
You know I'm looking at the older comments saying that Mariah Carey should be the number 1 artist of the 90's but I'm looking at the table above and Mariah is number 1. So did something change, was there a mistake? Like no joke, LP mean great for her she is very talented.
There was no mistake, the thing is that the order of these lists is determined by the data. The main thing that has changed is that the way the numbers are combined has been refined. When did you born?
Surprised not to see her listed at all, particularly in the 70's. Didn't she rank at all? She had the 35th song of the s and is artist of all time in v2. Not enough hit albums basically. Remember that albums contribute twice what songs do.
Of course you can download the CSV file and try some alternative way to calculate. Michael jackson is the most successful of all time in 80's and 90's ,Everyone around the world knows who he is and how much talent he hadhe also is the most famous person in the world that ever live.
This is not a vote, here we deal with facts not opinions, Michael Jackson had fewer hit songs and albums than the artists listed higher. By that definition he was not "the most successful of all time in 80's". What about Cher? She had hits music almost every decade from the sixties on. Since when did you change her rank?
I've read some old comments and the argueswere about why Madonna was no. Did you change your calculation or something :-?
We did change the calculation. The version numbers indicate the scoring system as well as fixes in the data. The 2. X scoring switched the order. To be honest for the s whether Madonna or Mariah are number one in the s depends on the fine details of the calculation, in reality they are close enough to each other that the difference isn't significant. We can say that the two of them are well ahead of the rest of the s acts.
What about Phil Collins? Tallying his work from Genesis and his solo career,he has more hits and chart time than anyone from the 80s. I see you guys have received a lot of hateful comments, and it saddens me to see people unable to look past their preconceived notions of who should be where.
I admire your logarithms and think it's very cool to be able to look at various points in history and see who is on top and when. Just an idea, but I think it'd be cool to add in. Anyways, don't let anyone stop you!
Good luck! Interesting suggestion. Actually since we make all our data available as a CSV file anyone can try various combinations using that data. If anyone finds a good way to apply these ideas we'd be interested to hear from you. Are u kidding me? Usher has the MOST number 1 hit singles and the biggestselling album 'Confessions' within the entire 's decade, and isn't even in the top 5??
Did you read what it says at the top of the page? I think you might find this paper interesting. It's a Cross-evaluation of metrics to estimate the significance of creative works, it applied to films, but it might be interesting the same method applied to the music industry.
Hope you find it useful! Interesting, since it relies on "references" from one work to another I can't see how to apply it to music at least at the level of songs and albums we deal with. I think I know the answer to this question but when will the current decade get its own page? First let me say that you can generate pretty much what that page would have on it from the CSV download file with a little sorting.
As we've said in many other places it takes about 5 years for the results we create to be "reliable" becuase of missing data and issues with consolidation, etc so at the moment we would not trust any of our own results from later than about The site generation software could easily be modified to start generating the s page now, but the results would be so questionable that we would not be happy to put them out there. Our guess would be that we would wait until we had a few reliable years before turning on the s page something like ?
The "correct" way to solve this issue would be for someone to create a companion site that does this type of global consolidation but only for dates after, saythat way it could take advantage of the greater volume of data available and avoid the heavy maths we have to do to fairly combine the s with the s.
If anyone fancies taking on such a challange we'd be happy to discuss. This is just one way of calibrating success. There are many other ways as well. For example, fame, worldwide album sales, world tour grosses or the number of total attendees, success in specific genres etc. If you take any of these into account, the list would be very very different.
This is a relatively personal account of mine but Prince never was as famous or popular as Michael although I like prince a lot too worldwide. First lets deal with your claims, while it is likely that "Thriller" sold more than 40M copies and it is almost certainly the best selling album of all time "Bad" probably sold more like 30M copies and is almost certainly NOT in the top 10 selling albums of all time.
And that is exactly the issue, some measures, such as worldwide album sales, world tour grosses and number of concert attendees have no reliable sources and a lot of silly claims. Using them to assess success would deliver unreliable results. As for "success in specific genres" we don't even know where we could find such a measure. In contrast "position in charts" is possible to find for periods starting in and is reliable from the s onward in some places.
The claim that we have not mentioned how we convert chart positions to a measure of "success" is both insulting and clearly wrong. We have described in detail how these rankings are generated just follow the links on this page and actually read the text rather than guessing what it will say. We have also provided the raw data so you can do your own calculation, and invited anyone to explain either why this approach is unfair to certain artists or suggest how it could be improved. One possible measure that would be an improvement would be to look at all the material released by an artist and see what proportion of it reached the charts.
If you think you can do that we'd be interested to look at the results, if you are not prepared to put in that work we'll continue to rely on our results we have done the work you see. We don't see how the statement that, according to our measure, in the s U2 had more success that Michael Jackson is in any way "trashing" him.
This is just a statement of fact. Thank you for creating this very informative site. Some of the artists listedas being the highest charting of a certain year or decade are completely different to what I had expected, but I trust that your data is far more reliable than my guesses.
It's also interesting to see who the top artists of the early decades are - I would imagine that most people nowadays have never heard of Billy Murray or the Peerless Quartet, and yet they were once the most successful artists in the world. I'm also curious about how much these lists would change if you did it for ten year periods starting at a different point, e. I'm guessing that some of the artists on these lists only rank as highly as they do because they happened to have all of their hit singles and albums within particular decades.
Thanks for the kind words. You raise an interesting question, given that one could claim the main "seismic shifts" in music occurred in, say, and then the periods,etc would each seem to be more internally consistent than the arbitrary division by decade.
When we're using this data to generate our own "hits of the era" playlists we tend to do so for 5 year periods for example. The decades just seem to us to have too much diversity. We would agree that the division into decades does artificially favour certain artists, of course shifting to 5 year periods or starting each decade at a different "year number" would boost a different but just as arbitrary set of artists.
But you don't need to wonder about who would be, say, the highest scoring artists for albums fromyou can download our CSV file and quickly do the calculation yourself the answer is "U2", "Madonna" and "Prince" are all about the same and ahead of all the others, unless we allow "Original Soundtrack". Playing with the CSV file in a spreadseet provides some interesting insights into the "bigger picture".
We would recommend it but, of course we are data nerds. If you find something interesting we'd like to hear about it. No matter what, the most important is not the number 1 place, is who you love.
Many do not realize that The Osmonds have sold over million records. In the early 70's they beat out both The Beatles and Elvis for the most gold records received in one year at MJ made his own music!
And he did play instruments. MJ didn't need anyinstrumentalist to create songs for him. He made the melody and all the arrangement himself. If i repeat a song on some instrument that makes me a musician?
Am i the composer of that song now? Beatles and Prince fans have the most dumbest ramblings on internet. Even some of the people on x-factor and American idol can sing and play instrument simultaneously. In our experience it is very clear which artists have the dumbest fans on the internet. Also, Jackson had to fight to get his 1 song on MTV solely because he was black.
Beatles didn't ever have to worry about things like that. In response to 2 post down. Micheal Jackson did not need any sessionmusicians. I suggest you listen to his bedroom recording of Billy Jean.
Not a far trip to the released version. It is also quite obvious, if you know a bit about lyrics, to see who wrote them. He wrote his lyrics. They were the most important thing that drove his music. It really sounds like you don't know what you are talking about. The Beatles admittedly lifted many riffs. There is no reason for your comment. Definitely wrong to include Mariah Carey and Celine Dion. They should beexempt because they were married to the CEO of their record company.
In Garth was offically listed the 3rd biggest selling solo artist in theUSA of the sound scan era, From the late 80's early 90's. Believe it or not it is face. Now is he is number 2. Why do MJ fans think that if they shout loudest then they will change the stats on their fave artist.
MJ was a great live performer. However, he had to hire dozens of session musicians to make the music on his albums. He also had to hire many professional songwriters to compose or co-compose his recorded songs.
MJ was one of the great 'pop' singers of the 80's and yes, he was a brilliant live act. I am a Beatles fan. I am happy with their stats. I will not shout out that they should have the best selling single album. I am happy with their overall album and singles sales. They remain the biggest selling music act in history due to their original songs and their innovative musicianship and recording techniques.
IT is impossible for any act to hold all the records. But the Beatles continue to hold their own. MJ fans should be happy with what he did achieve in his time. He is still popular today and remains as big as Madonna or Prince. Celebrate that. Michael Jackson should with out a doubt be at number one for the s. Michael Jackson had the 1st best selling album of the s which is also the biggest selling album ever ThrillerMichael Jackson has the 2nd best selling album of the s which is among the best selling albums ever bad.
Michael Jackson had more number ones than any other artist, had the most successful concert series and sold the most records. He became the most famous person in the world, revolutionised pop music and you can really justify putting him at number 4. He holds every musical record possible in the s so your list is extremely inaccurate and your excuses are also inaccurate.
Michael Jackson is the king of pop and the biggest selling artist in the world. He has influenced all of the most successful artists of the last few decades. If you can really look beyond those achievements by a Michael Jackson then you don't deserve to post on the internet because you're information is highly inaccurate and absolutely ridiculous.
You claim that record sales don't apply yet you've placed Elvis and the Beatles at number one for that exact reason. Stop being so ridiculous and open your eyes to the truth and the success of Michael Jackson. Its true that "Thriller" was the biggest selling album, but "Bad" was certainly NOT the second biggest seller of the s and he certainly did NOT have more number ones than other artists in the s.
Making exaggerated claims, like that he sold anywhere near the same total as The Beatles or Elvis just demonstrates why our data driven approach is so necessary.
The fact that Michael Jackson fans shout louder and are more abusive than others does not prove anything good about him. As we've explained a few times we don't "decide" to put him 4th, that's where the actual chart data places him. Even if we agreed with you that he in some way "should" be top in the s we'd have to find some strange combination of scores to put him there.
The fact is that its the data that places him as the 4th artist of the s and no amount of shouting will change that. Great article, and much more meaningful than grouping them all together to compare head-to-head. It's amazing what pops up - e. Glenn Miller. World population was much smaller at the start of the 20th century than today, and so of course were the US and UK populations. As a percentage of population, those earlier acts like the Beatles or Bing Crosby are far more impressive.
It wouldn't be too hard to do some quick calculations, based on populations at time of release, to create a meaningful top 10 that compares across decades, although there are other factors to consider, such as technology and globalisation of music sales. It's always tempting to prioritise music from within our own lifetime, and to ignore stuff we didn't grow up with, e. As a music lover, though, I want to go and seek out this stuff. Many years ago I read a newspaper article naming the ten best singers.
By chance do you know the two other singers? Your lists make a lot of sense. I noted Madonna was the 2nd most successful female artist for 3 decades. She has sold more than albums, she is an iconic woman proudly compared in sales with Michael Jackson, Elton John, Pink Floyd and other great artists.
Hey I wonna know where is Taylor swift. One of the most successful country music singer and now also on pop music. As the text says the data is only reliable up to about 5 years ago that is Most of Taylor Swift's hits have been later than that. Elvis was more successful because there wasn't as many options in music fromthe 40ss. Once the 60s came, music progressed to many variations which gave customers more options to choose from thus minimizing the individual success of all artist.
That should be computed in your cheesy algorithm, as well as the civil rights act of which gave blacks completely equal rights.
Your arrogance in your so called unbiased algorithm doesn't take into account the different races individual circumstances, which culturally affect product sales. It is impossible to make an accurate algorithm to determine a music artist success through many decades without taking everything into account.
The only way to compare musicians without any bias is to put them in the same decade facing the same obstacles, which is impossible. The rest is just a matter of personal tastes. My opinion is that through cultural obstacles, Michael Jackson is the most successful. In terms of combination of songwriting, creativity, originality, skill, coupled with top hits and album sales, the most successful is the Beatles. I give you credit for trying, this is still biased, even though it does not reflect your own personal biases.
We discuss at length the various ways that our algorithm is biased, it is not perfect but it does try and take into account the ways that different periods interact with the charts. We think the result is about as neutral as it can possibly be. Your suggestion that race should have any type of role is insulting, only an American would think so. Your mention of US domestic politics clearly demonstrates that you are American.
The data here comes from countries outside the US, most of whom are a lot less racist than the US was for the period covered. Michael Jackson as the most successful artist despite cultural obstacles - you must be joking. Mariah should only be First! It's a marketing gimmick, Mariah has 18 hits to her name seventeen self penned, I can't Name anyone to this day that can turn a note into the ground lift it up with a butterfly belt as high as she wants and take it further with her whistle xx she has no limits she's the queen bitch of what she does and as she came back you should all know she's coming back for all your asses!!
MC often imitated never duplicated! What of beyonce??? She sure is the artist of s! She is currently the higest paid black female artist from her Mrs carter show tour??? How come she isn't on the top five list???? The song list is always about 5 years behind so currently its only OK to about So, as it says in the text, this is not really trustworthy, other sites will have better data.
Also has the most sold out tour dates in the 80s too. So MJ is the most successful of the 80s. The list is not based on sales numbers because in reality no-one actually knows those. Madonna had more number one songs and more number one albums, so she scores higher. It doesn't matter how much you think Jackson "deserves" to be higher or even what our opinion isthe order on this page is determined by the facts not opinions. In the UK Shakin Stevens was the biggest selling singles artist of the 80'showever using both Singles and albums i doubt he would be No 1.
This list combines singles and albums and covers the whole world. We suspect the fact that he does not appear is entirely fair. He will always be KING and no other artist can touch him. I'm quite horrified to see that MJ has been ranked 4th in the s. Please visit wikipedia and read the Guiness book of World records to know more about MJ. This site is for those that want to use the data to come to their views. You should feel free to believe Wikipedia and not let facts cloud your opinions.
John Lennon said it best "before Elvis there was nothing". Mj was more plastic than human. When he died, they probably melted him down into a Lego, so little boys can play with him for a change. The Beatles, 2. Elvis 3. Abba for importance and influence; 1. Beatles, 2 Elvis 3.
Michael Jackson or Madonna do not come close. And of course Mariah Carrey or any hiphop act does not come close. Infact; in records sold or downloaded, or paid, The Beatles outscore any other artists since Clearly, on this site and a few others, the mj fans can't accept the fact that Elvis sold more and had way more hits around the world than he did.
Simply claiming that people have changed something forever shooldn't raisethem on a pedestal. Hitler also changed the course of history, but he's certainly nobody to worship. Regardless, let me make it clear that Elvis was good, but by no means equivalent to Michael Jackson. No, i'm actually not that big of a Michael Jackson fan Mariah Carey's my favorite and I wasn't born untilproving that my opinion is impartial and not bias in anyway I understand that the author of this used an algorithm and was unbiased, but for the record this is my input for the whole MJ vs Elvis "controversy".
We agree, Elvis was one of the most influential music acts of all time, Michael Jackson was not even the most successful act of the s. They are in no way equivalent. The idea that because you are young you are impartial is in direct contradiction with our experience. So we would disagree with your opinion that "Elvis is overrated", but the goal of this site is not to change your strongly held opinions, it is to provide impartial evidence for those who are still open to discussion.
Prince a bigger artist than Michael Jackson? Nr 15 with Prince is waay down at 36 with 39,5. In the Uk, List of best-selling music artists in the United Kingdom in singles sales lists Michael Jackson at nr 5 with singles sales of Prince is at nr 54 with only 5.
What is your definition of success? If a an artist release an album that stays on the top spot for 37 weeks and another that stays on the top spot for 6 weeks and selling almost million combined Thriller and BadNeither Batman, Around the world. Michael Jackson sold million albums in the 80s, more than Madonna and Prince.
So he had more success. First of all our calculation shows that Prince had more success in the s than Michael Jackson. On this site we have used five different methods to calculate success across decades, each has been explained in detail. In none of those 5 does Prince score higher than Michael Jackson. So clearly your evidence supports the conclusion that Michael Jackson is nowhere near either of those acts.
I don't know what source you are using for UK sales figures. Worldwide sales figures for the s are unreliable and certainly useless as evidence.
Our criteria for success are clearly stated, the input data is documented. We report the results of applying systematic processes to defined inputs, we won't fiddle our results for anyone. Having followed music sales for many years - I have always been annoyed howhype doesn't always fit real life sales or how success in one country is 'sold' by hype as being typical of global success.
I think hard-core fans should just accept that their favourite acts may well not have been as globally successful as they would have liked - stop rallying against a very fair system of calculation here and just be glad of whatever successes their favourite acts have had - sales aren't everything! The data from after is, at best, of limited value. We won't be consolidating this data for a while yet. Speaking of the false king and culture-thief Elvis, It's reported Michael sold more records since his death than Elvis and John Lennon combined since theirs.
This list is about worldwide success not just success in the US like the Billboard list. Also it follows a published approach rather than being swayed by aggressive fans and media notoriety.
The phrase "it's reported that" is a clear flag of your lack of any real data to support your views. In fact no one even comes close, in addition to no one being Number One for two decades in a row.
Cosby accomplished the above during the Great Depression and World War Two, which is quite remarkable. Crosby is the MAN. Our estimate is that any one of Bing Crosby, The Beatles, Elvis, Paul Whiteman, Frank Sinatra or Glenn Miller could feasibly be claimed to be the most successful musical acts of the 20th century, depending on how you combine the evidence.
For most approaches the top act works out as Bing Crosby, The Beatles or Elvis, but the others turn up for some metrics. Our calculation is that if Madonna continues to be successful for another decade or so she would join that elite list.
It depends on how you estimate success, but our numbers indicate that Bing Crosby is certainly one of the top 3. The details of the various calculations are all described on the site. The way the main "score" is calculated is described in the "How the site is generated?
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