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Main article: Folk rock. Main article: Psychedelic rock. See also: Raga rock. Main article: Progressive rock. See also: Art rock and Experimental rock. Further information: Progressive music. Main article: Jazz rock. Main article: Roots rock. See also: Country rock and Southern rock. Main article: Glam rock. Main article: Chicano rock. Main articles: Soft rockHard rockand Heavy metal music.
See also: List of soft rock artists and songs. Main article: Christian rock. Main article: Heartland rock. Main article: Punk rock.
See also: Protopunk and Hardcore punk. Main articles: New wave music and Synth-pop. See also: New Romantic and Electronic rock. Main article: Post-punk. See also: Gothic rock and Industrial music. Main article: Alternative rock. See also: Jangle popcollege rockindie popdream popand shoegazing. Main article: Grunge. Main article: Britpop. Main article: Post-grunge.
Main article: Pop punk. Main article: Indie rock. Main article: Heavy metal music. Main article: Post-Britpop. Main articles: Post-hardcore and Emo. See also: Screamo. Main articles: Garage rock revival and Post-punk revival.
Main article: Electronic rock. Main article: Social effects of rock music. See also: Women in heavy metal. Rock music portal. These bands began to be labelled punk rock and are now often seen as proto-punk or proto- hard rock. Studwell and D. Surfin Elevators - Various - Infused (CD) and Roll: An Introduction 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Schirmer. ISBN Brewer, "Bass Guitar", in Shepherd,p.
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Fulbrook, B. Christgau's Record Guide: The '80s. Pantheon Books. ISBN X. Retrieved 6 April Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Denisoff, W. Retrieved 14 February Unterberger, "Doo Wop", in Bogdanov et. Louisiana Rocks! Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing. Chuck Berry: The Biography. University of Illinois Press. Frith, "Pop music" in S. Frith, W. Stray and J. Starr and C. Not Lame Recording Company. Bradby, "Do-talk, don't-talk: the division of the subject in girl-group music" in S. Frith and A. Keightley, "Reconsidering rock" in S.
Straw and J. Unterberger, "Brill Building Sound", in Bogdanov et. Hatch and S. Eder, "British Blues", in V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra, S. Unterberger, "Soul", in Bogdanov et al.
Unterberger, "Merseybeat", in Bogdanov et. Retrieved 25 February Ruhlman, et al. Nostalgia Central. Retrieved 29 July Stakes, "Those boys: the rise of Mersey beat", in S. Wade, ed. Covach and G. Unterberger, "British Invasion", in Bogdanov et al. Keightley, "Reconsidering rock" in, S.
Hoffmann, "British Invasion" in F. Hoffmann and H. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. Unterberger, "Garage Rock", in Bogdanov et al. Billboard Books,p. Hoffman and H. American Culture in the s. Uterberger, "Blues Rock", in V. Rawlings, A. Neill, C. Charlesworth and C. Prown, H. Newquist and J.
Unterberger, "Southern Rock", in Bogdanov et al. Unterberger, "Folk Rock", in Bogdanov et al. Mods, Rockers, and the Music of the British Invasion. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Retrieved 3 June Haslam, A. Russell and R. Straw, and J. Unterberger, "Psychedelic Rock", in Bogdanov et al. The Beatles vs. Voyageur Press. Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Singles Record Research. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 December Retrieved 10 March Unterberger, "Progressive Rock", in Bogdanov et al.
Eder, "Renaissance"Allmusicarchived from the original on 12 February Udo, "Did Punk kill prog? Unterberger, "Jazz Rock", in Bogdanov et al. Carr, D. Fairweather and B. Liveness: Performance in a Mediatized Culture 2nd ed. Abingdon, England: Routledge. Wolff and O. Unterberger, "The Band", and S. Erlewine, "Creedence Clearwater Revival", in Bogdanov et al. The Village Voice. Retrieved 18 February — via robertchristgau.
Unterberger, "Country Rock", in Bogdanov et al. Buckley, ed. Inglis, ed. Thompson, "Glitter Band" and S. Huey, "Gary Glitter", in Bogdanov et al. Retrieved 24 August Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14 April Gran Via. Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Frontera Project. The Best of the Move". Retrieved 10 September Kennaugh, "Fleetwood Mac", in P. From about bands like Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience had moved away from purely blues-based music into psychedelia.
By the s, the scene that had developed out of the American folk music revival had grown to a major movement, utilising traditional music and new compositions in a traditional style, usually on acoustic instruments. Early attempts to combine elements of folk and rock included the Animals' " House of the Rising Sun "which was the first commercially successful folk song to be recorded with rock and roll instrumentation  and the Beatles " I'm a Loser "arguably the first Beatles song to be influenced directly by Dylan.
Tambourine Man " which topped the charts in Folk-rock reached its peak of commercial popularity in the period —68, before many acts moved off in a variety of directions, including Dylan and the Byrds, who began to develop country rock. Psychedelic music's LSD -inspired vibe began in the folk scene. Pepper was later regarded as the greatest album of all time and a starting point for the album eraduring which rock music transitioned from the singles format to albums and achieved cultural legitimacy in the mainstream.
Progressive rock, a term sometimes used interchangeably with art rockmoved beyond established musical formulas by experimenting with different instruments, song types, and forms. Instrumentals were common, while songs with lyrics were sometimes conceptual, abstract, or based in fantasy and science fiction. Greater commercial success was enjoyed by Pink Floyd, who also moved away from psychedelia after the departure of Syd Barrett inwith The Dark Side of the Moonseen as a masterpiece of the genre, becoming one of the best-selling albums of all time.
The instrumental strand of the genre resulted in albums like Mike Oldfield 's Tubular Bellsthe first record, and worldwide hit, for the Virgin Records label, which became a mainstay of the genre. In the late s, jazz-rock emerged as a distinct subgenre out of the blues-rock, psychedelic, and progressive rock scenes, mixing the power of rock with the musical complexity and improvisational elements of jazz. AllMusic states that the term jazz-rock "may refer to the loudest, wildest, most electrified fusion bands from the jazz camp, but most often it describes performers coming from the rock side of the equation.
In Britain the subgenre of blues rock, and many of its leading figures, like Ginger Baker and Jack Bruce of the Eric Clapton -fronted band Creamhad emerged from the British jazz scene. Often highlighted as the first true jazz-rock recording is the only album by the relatively obscure New York-based the Free Spirits with Out of Sight and Sound British acts to emerge in the same period from the blues scene, to make use of the tonal and improvisational aspects of jazz, included Nucleus  and the Graham Bond and John Mayall spin-off Colosseum.
From the psychedelic rock and the Canterbury scenes came Soft Machine, who, it has been suggested, produced one of the artistically successfully fusions of the two genres. Perhaps the most critically acclaimed fusion came from the jazz side of the equation, with Miles Davisparticularly influenced by the work of Hendrix, incorporating rock instrumentation into his sound for the album Bitches Brew It was a major influence on subsequent rock-influenced jazz artists, including Herbie HancockChick Corea and Weather Report.
Reflecting on developments in rock music at the start of the s, Robert Christgau later wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies : . The decade is, of course, an arbitrary schema itself—time doesn't just execute a neat turn toward the future every ten years.
But like a lot of artificial concepts—money, say—the category does take on a reality of its own once people figure out how to put it to work. In popular music, embracing the '70s meant both an elitist withdrawal from the messy concert and counterculture scene and a profiteering pursuit of the lowest common denominator in FM radio and album rock.
Rock saw greater commodification during this decade, turning into a multibillion-dollar industry and doubling its market while, as Christgau noted, suffering a significant "loss of cultural prestige". In the '70s the powerful took over, as rock industrialists capitalized on the national mood to reduce potent music to an often reactionary species of entertainment—and to transmute rock's popular base from the audience to market.
Roots rock is the term now used to describe a move away from what some saw as the excesses of the psychedelic scene, to a more basic form of rock and roll that incorporated its original influences, particularly country and folk music, leading to the creation of country rock and Southern rock.
The founders of Southern rock are usually thought to be the Allman Brothers Band, who developed a distinctive sound, largely derived from blues rockbut incorporating elements of boogiesoul, and country in the early s.
Glam rock emerged from the English psychedelic and art rock scenes of the late s and can be seen as both an extension of and reaction against those trends. The origins of glam rock are associated with Marc Bolanwho had renamed his folk duo to T. Rex and taken up electric instruments by the end of the s. After the early successes of Latin rock in the s, Chicano musicians like Carlos Santana and Al Hurricane continued to have successful careers throughout the s.
Santana opened the decade with success in his single " Black Magic Woman " on the Abraxas album. A strange time, —although rock's balkanization into genres was well underway, it was often hard to tell one catch-phrase from the next. From the late s it became common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was often derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies.
From the late s the term "heavy metal" began to be used to describe some hard rock played with even more volume and intensity, first as an adjective and by the early s as a noun. Led Zeppelin added elements of fantasy to their riff laden blues-rock, Deep Purple brought in symphonic and medieval interests from their progressive rock phase and Black Sabbath introduced facets of the gothic and modal harmonyhelping to produce a "darker" sound.
Rock, mostly the heavy metal genre, has been criticized by some Christian leaders, who have condemned it as immoral, anti-Christian and even satanic.
Starting in the s Christian pop performers have had some mainstream success. While these artists were largely acceptable in Christian communities, the adoption of heavy rock and glam metal styles by bands like Stryperwho achieved considerable mainstream success in the s, was more controversial.
American working-class oriented heartland rock, characterized by a straightforward musical style, and a concern with the lives of ordinary, blue-collar American people, developed in the second half of the s. The term heartland rock was first used to describe Midwestern arena rock groups like KansasREO Speedwagon and Styx, but which came to be associated with a more socially concerned form of roots rock more directly influenced by folk, country and rock and roll.
Exemplified by the commercial success of singer songwriters Bruce SpringsteenBob Segerand Tom Pettyalong with less widely known acts such as Southside Johnny and the Asbury Jukes and Joe Grushecky and the Houserockersit was partly a reaction to post-industrial urban decline in the East and Mid-West, often dwelling on issues of social disintegration and isolation, beside a form of good-time rock and roll revivalism. Heartland rock faded away as a recognized genre by the early s, as rock music in general, and blue-collar and white working class themes in particular, lost influence with younger audiences, and as heartland's artists turned to more personal works.
Newer artists whose music would perhaps have been labeled heartland rock had it been released in the s or s, such as Missouri's Bottle Rockets and Illinois' Uncle Tupelooften find themselves labeled alt-country.
Punk rock was developed between and in the United States and the United Kingdom. Rooted in garage rock and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music, punk rock bands eschewed the perceived excesses of mainstream s rock. Punk embraces a DIY do it yourself ethicwith many bands self-producing their recordings and distributing them through informal channels.
Punk quickly became a major cultural phenomenon in the UK. The Sex Surfin Elevators - Various - Infused (CD) live TV skirmish with Bill Grundy on December 1, was the watershed moment in British punk's transformation into a major media phenomenon, even as some stores refused to stock the records and radio airplay was hard to come by.
An associated punk subculture emerged, expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive clothing styles and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies. By the beginning of the s, faster, more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi! Although punk rock was a significant social and musical phenomenon, it achieved less in the way of record sales being distributed by small specialty labels such as Stiff Records or American radio airplay as the radio scene continued to be dominated by mainstream formats such as disco and album-oriented rock.
If hardcore most directly pursued the stripped down aesthetic of punk, and new wave came to represent its commercial wing, post-punk emerged in the later s and early s as its more artistic and challenging side. The first wave of British post-punk included Gang of FourSiouxsie and the Banshees and Joy Divisionwho placed less emphasis on art than their US counterparts and more on the dark emotional qualities of their music.
The second generation of British post-punk bands that broke through in the early s, including the Fallthe Pop Groupthe MekonsEcho and the Bunnymen and the Teardrop Explodestended to move away from dark sonic landscapes. The term alternative rock was coined in the early s to describe rock artists who did not fit into the mainstream genres of the time.
Bands dubbed "alternative" had no unified style, but were all seen as distinct from mainstream music. Alternative bands were linked by their collective debt to punk rock, through hardcore, New Wave or the post-punk movements.
Few of these early bands achieved mainstream success, although exceptions to this rule include R. Despite a general lack of spectacular album sales, the original alternative rock bands exerted a considerable influence on the generation of musicians who came of age in the s and ended up breaking through to mainstream success in the s.
Styles of alternative rock in the US during the s included jangle popassociated with the early recordings of R. Disaffected by commercialized and highly produced pop and rock in the mids, bands in Washington state particularly in the Seattle area formed a new style of rock which sharply contrasted with the mainstream music of the time. Bands such as Green RiverSoundgardenMelvins and Skin Yard pioneered the genre, with Mudhoney becoming the most successful by the end of the decade.
Grunge remained largely a local phenomenon untilwhen Nirvana 's album Nevermind became a huge success, containing the anthemic song " Smells Like Teen Spirit ".
During andother grunge albums such as Pearl Jam 's TenSoundgarden's Badmotorfinger and Alice in Chains ' Dirtalong with the Temple of the Dog album featuring members of Pearl Jam and Soundgarden, became among the top-selling albums. Britpop emerged from the British alternative rock scene of the early s and was characterised by bands particularly influenced by British guitar music of the s and s.
The term post-grunge was coined for the generation of bands that followed the emergence into the mainstream and subsequent hiatus of the Seattle grunge Surfin Elevators - Various - Infused (CD). Post-grunge bands emulated their attitudes and music, but with a more radio-friendly commercially oriented sound. Some post-grunge bands, like Candleboxwere from Seattle, but the subgenre was marked by a broadening of the geographical base of grunge, with bands like Los Angeles' Audioslaveand Georgia's Collective Soul and beyond the US to Australia's Silverchair and Britain's Bushwho all cemented post-grunge as one of the most commercially viable subgenres of the late s.
The origins of s pop punk can be seen in the more song-oriented bands of the s punk movement like Buzzcocks and the Clashcommercially successful new wave acts such as the Jam and the Undertonesand the more hardcore-influenced elements of alternative rock in the s. A second wave of pop punk was spearheaded by Blinkwith their breakthrough album Enema of the Statefollowed by bands such as Good CharlotteSimple Plan and Sum 41who made use of humour in their videos and had a more radio-friendly tone to their music, while retaining the speed, some of the attitude and even the look of s punk.
In the s the terms indie rock and alternative rock were used interchangeably. By the end of the s many recognisable subgenres, most with their origins in the late s alternative movement, were included under the umbrella of indie.
Lo-fi eschewed polished recording techniques for a D. Black Emperor and Quickspace. Alternative metal emerged from the hardcore scene of alternative rock in the US in the later s, but gained a wider audience after grunge broke into the mainstream in the early s.
Hip hop had gained attention from rock acts in the early s, including the Clash with " The Magnificent Seven " and Blondie with " Rapture " InFaith No More broke into the mainstream with their single " Epic ", often seen as the first truly successful combination of heavy metal with rap. Innu metal reached its peak with albums like Staind's Break the CycleP. From aboutas dissatisfaction grew with the concept of Cool Britannia, and Britpop as a movement began to dissolve, emerging bands began to avoid the Britpop label while still producing music derived from it.
Post-Britpop bands have been seen as presenting the image of the rock star as an ordinary person and their increasingly melodic music was criticised for being bland or derivative. Post-hardcore developed in the US, particularly in the Chicago and Washington, DC areas, in the early to mids, with bands that were inspired by the do-it-yourself ethics and guitar-heavy music of hardcore punk, but influenced by post-punk, adopting longer song formats, more complex musical structures and sometimes more melodic vocal styles.
Emo also emerged from the hardcore scene in s Washington, D. In the early s, a new group of bands that played a stripped down and back-to-basics version of guitar rock, emerged into the mainstream. They were variously characterised as part of a garage rock, post-punk or new wave revival.
In the s, as computer technology became more accessible and music software advanced, it became possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer. During the s, rock music saw a decline in mainstream popularity and Surfin Elevators - Various - Infused (CD) relevancy; byhip hop music had surpassed it as the most consumed musical genre in the United States.
Despite rock's decline in mainstream popularity, some rock bands have continued to achieve mainstream success in the s and s, including Tool Fall Out Boy Greta Van Fleet Panic! Restrictions, such as quarantine rules, caused widespread cancellations and postponements of concerts, tours, festivals, album releases, award ceremonies, and competitions.
At the start of the s, recording artists in both pop and rap music released popular pop-punk recordings, many of them produced or assisted by Blink drummer Travis Barker. The popularity of the social media platform TikTok helped spark nostalgia for the angst-driven musical style among young listeners during the pandemic.
Different subgenres of rock were adopted by, and became central to, the identity of a large number of sub-cultures. In the s and s, respectively, British youths adopted the Teddy Boy and Rocker subcultures, which revolved around US rock and roll. When an international rock culture developed, it supplanted cinema as the major sources of fashion influence.
Rock has been credited with changing attitudes to race by opening up African-American culture to white audiences; but at the same time, rock has been accused of appropriating and exploiting that culture.
Since its early development, rock music has been associated with rebellion against social and political norms, most obviously in early rock and roll's rejection of an adult-dominated culture, the counterculture's rejection of consumerism and conformity and punk's rejection of all forms of social convention,  however, it can also be seen as providing a means of commercial exploitation of such ideas and of diverting youth away from political action.
Professional women instrumentalists are uncommon in rock genres such as heavy metal although bands such as Within Temptation have featured women as lead singers with men playing instruments.
According to Schaap and Berkers, "playing in a band is largely a male homosocial activity, that is, learning to play in a band is largely a peer-based In popular music, there has been a gendered "distinction between public male and private female participation" in music. Philip Auslander says that "Although there were many women in rock by the late s, most performed only as singers, a traditionally feminine position in popular music".
Though some women played instruments in American all-female garage rock bandsnone of these bands achieved more than regional success. So they "did not provide viable templates for women's on-going participation in rock". An all-female band is a musical group in genres such as rock and blues which is exclusively composed of female musicians.
This is distinct from a girl group, in which the female members are solely vocalists, though this terminology is not universally followed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Rock music. Popular music genre.
For the original s style of rock music, see Rock and roll. For other uses, see Rock music disambiguation. Rock and roll rockabilly blues electric blues folk country rhythm and blues soul jazz. Electric guitar Bass guitar Electronic drum. Synth-pop orchestral pop post-progressive progressive pop. Main article: Rock and roll. See also: Origins of rock and roll and Rockabilly. Main articles: Pop rock and Instrumental rock. See also: Doo WopBritish rock and rolland Soul music.
Main article: Surf music. Main article: British Invasion. See also: Beat musicBritish bluesand British rock. Main article: Garage rock. Main article: Blues rock. See also: British blues. Main article: Folk rock. Main article: Psychedelic rock. See also: Raga rock. Main article: Progressive rock. See also: Art rock and Experimental rock. Further information: Progressive music. Main article: Jazz rock. Main article: Roots rock. See also: Country rock and Southern rock.
Main article: Glam rock. Main article: Chicano rock. Main articles: Soft rockHard rockand Heavy metal music. See also: List of soft rock artists and songs. Main article: Christian rock. Main article: Heartland rock. Main article: Punk rock. See also: Protopunk and Hardcore punk. Main articles: New wave music and Synth-pop. See also: New Romantic and Electronic rock. Main article: Post-punk. See also: Gothic rock and Industrial music. Main article: Alternative rock. See also: Jangle popcollege rockindie popdream popand shoegazing.
Main article: Grunge. Main article: Britpop. Main article: Post-grunge. Main article: Pop punk.
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